The News
Dedicated to Austrian-Hungarian Burgenland Family History

November 30, 2014, © 2014 - The Burgenland Bunch - all rights reserved

Editor: Thomas Steichen (email:
Archives at: BB Newsletter Index

Our 18th Year. The Burgenland Bunch Newsletter is issued monthly online. It was founded by Gerald Berghold (who retired Summer 2008 and died in August 2008).

Current Status Of The BB:
* Members: 2294 * Surname Entries: 7514 * Query Board Entries: 5395 * Staff Members: 17

This newsletter concerns:






    - BREITENBRUNN (from Albert Schuch)



1) THE PRESIDENT'S CORNER (by Tom Steichen)

Picture of Tom SteichenConcerning this newsletter, after the bits and pieces here in my "Corner," our first full-length article, Article 2, responds to (and expands on) a question concerning whether a particular village was in Cisleitha Versus Transleitha. That labeling distinction affected far more than just the Burgenland region!

Article 3 gives me the opportunity to present some interesting Burgenland Population Data and the statistics, graphs and charts generated from it... but then interesting is in the eye of the beholder and I am a retired statistician!

Article 4 introduces the Memoir of Raymond Bubick, who died in October. Born in South Bend, IN, in 1933, Ray was a child of between-the-wars Burgenland emigrants. Perhaps his story will help you understand better those in your family who may have had similar experiences.

Article 5 gives a Welcome To A New Member, though it also serves an additional purpose too...

The remaining articles are our standard sections: Historical Newsletter Articles, and the Ethnic Events and Emigrant Obituaries sections.


St. Louis Gathering of Burgenländer and Descendants: Theresa (Terry) McWilliams, the BB's St. Louis Research staff member, wrote about last month's gathering and provided a group photo:

"It has been a while since the St. Louis contingent of Burgenländers got together, but they did just that on November 2nd. Around 25 folks showed up, some who are members of the BB, others who heard about the gathering by word of mouth and through church bulletins. It was a wonderful afternoon of making connections with fellow Burgenland descendants. There was food - Austrian, Hungarian, American, German, and liquid refreshments from the Burgenland vineyards. People brought old photos of unknowns that some others were able to identify. Some discovered the BB and various websites that will help them with their ancestry searches. Several of the folks already had connections outside of their heritage and discovered this one for the first time. It was a most enjoyable gathering and we look forward to future events!"

We thank Terry for organizing the event and providing this report!


Request for Information, Frank and Gösi Families: Robert Gösi writes:

I am wondering if you can help me. I have been looking into my family name and researching my family tree for many, many years. I believe my ancestors were Graf Frank von Lutzmannsburg and/or Benedict Gös de Gösfalv / Benedict von Gösvalva. My surname is Gösi and I believe my family come from the Sári Branch of the Gös family. My father was born in a village (Pusztasomorja, in Hungary beside the Austrian border near Andau) that is very very close (50 km or so from Lutzmannsburg and about 20 km from Breitenbrunn) to some of the Frankó/Gös estates.

I am trying to find out as much about the family as possible but am finding conflicting historical accounts both on the Hungarian side and the Austrian. Like, the Austrian records refer to the Franks as Graf but the Hungarian documents only list them as nobles without rank, and so on. And that both Frank’s and Gös’s had a common ancestor in Gottfried and Albrecht Rittern. I also understand that the patent of nobility and the donation letter from Geza II of Lutzmannsburg is in Austria.

I am particularly interested in the Gös side, being that my name is Gösi, and if a Coat of Arms was ever recorded for the Gös family that came from Sár. I am also keen on any information you have about the family between 1476-1708. They seem to disappear. It is written that the Gös line died out... but that can’t be as I myself am a Gösi. In my father's village, the records go back only to 1708, due to the village being burnt down by the Turkish. From 1708, there are records of many, many Gösi in the village.

I would be very grateful for any information you have. Regards, Robert Gösi

Editor: I was able to point to a few resources on the web that are consistent with what Robert reports, however, I was unable to fill in any of the missing family history from the 15 and 1600s. I did, however, offer to publish Robert's request for information, which you see above. If you know of these families and can provide information, especially pre-1700 information, Robert would be grateful. Let me know and I'll pass Robert's email address to you.


Follow-up to "1989 Burgenland Bank Advertisement": Klaus Gerger wrote to say (in part): I like your article about the Bank ad. It just says 'bring your money to us if you want to hide it.' The statement about banking secrecy was true until recently changed under pressure by the EU. There are no anonymous accounts anymore and, on request of foreign financial authorities, (banking) data of non-residents are submitted for a court decision now and automatically from 2017. see austria-to-end-tax-secrecy.htm.

I pulled the cited May 2013 article and found it was from OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). It indicated that Austria was among 12 countries that had recently signed, or committed to sign, the OECD’s Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters. In addition, another 6 countries had previously ratified the Convention, an international effort to crack down on tax offenders. “This is a historic moment for the Convention and another winning round in the fight against tax cheats,” said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría during the signing ceremony. The Convention provides for spontaneous exchange of information, simultaneous tax examinations and assistance in tax collection, which is a tool for governments to fight offshore tax evasion. As of May 2013, 53 countries were signers.

So it appears that my implication, that the banking services offered in the 1989 ad would not be allowed today, was correct... but just barely so!

As background, OECD was the successor to the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), which was formed in 1948 to administer aid from the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. By the end of the 1950s, the job of rebuilding Europe was effectively done and OEEC no longer needed, but some leading countries felt it could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, OEDC was chartered and officially superseded OEEC in September 1961.

Second Follow-up to "A Double Blast From the Past": In the August 2014 Newsletter (# 246), we published material from Robert Fahringer concerning members of the Fiedler family. The second included photo, taken at Fiedler's Cafe, stirred some questions, so we ran a follow-up on it in Newsletter # 247.

Now, Louise Yost Fielding writes to say (in part) that "I knew the man second from the left on the photo [of the double quartet, # 2, see below]. I believe it is Charles Gibiser, my great uncle, that lived just around the corner from us on Oak St. Charles married my grandfather’s sister, Theresia Yost. I was able to locate Charles’ granddaughter, Margo Gibiser. She confirmed that it was her grandfather. I am wondering if any of the readers might know other men on the photo? I was born after my grandfather, John Yost, Sr., died [ in 1945] so I don’t have any photos of him. I am curious to know if he might be on that photo, possibly next to Charles."

As in the first follow-up, I personally could not identify any of the individuals in the questioned picture (well, other than John Fielder (# 10), who Bob Fahringer identified in his original message). I did, however, again inquire of Bob, who said "The only other names that I have for the photo were given to me by my Aunt Erna (Fiedler) Wiesner, the youngest of John Fiedler's children. She only gave me three last names: Gibiser, Golatz, & Wallitsch." Bob added one more name in a second message, Wirth, and noted that "Gibiser is under the 2nd from the left."

This seems additional confirmation that #2 is, indeed, Charles Gibiser. Bob also said, per his great aunt, that #1 is a Wallitsch and #4 is a Wirth; Golatz she could not place. However, Louise's question remains unanswered. Thus we turn to you, faithful readers, asking for assistance in (fully) identifying the quartet members... oh, and while we are at it, in identifying the two little imps on the far right who "photo-bombed" the quartet long before "photo-bombing" became a defined activity!

Bob tells me that his best guess for the year of the photo is 1913-1915. As for other information, we know that the Doppelquartet was associated with the Allentown Turner-Liederkranz, so one would assume most of the singers are from the Allentown, PA, area.

Interestingly, Bob has another picture seemingly taken about the same time and with a similar location... but this is of a group of women and young girls:

Bob notes that the lady with the arrow and asterisk (#6) is Teresa (Deutsch) Fiedler, John Fielder's second wife... but the rest... well, perhaps you know.

Thus, my requests to the readership:

· Who are the unidentified men in the double quartet (and the girls in the same photo)?

· Who are the unidentified women and girls in the second photo?

· (bonus question) Where were the pictures taken?

Please write to me at, using the #'s on the pictures to indicate which person you refer to. Given the gender difference, I should have no trouble in knowing which picture a number applies to!


WWW.GENTEAM.EU Update: Felix Gundacker provided an update on their membership and databases. There are now 26,000 registered users and ~11 million database entries. Access is free but registration and a password are required.

Database Updates/Additions:

1. Diocese Passau: ~140,000 new entries, 2.3 million online (~440,000 are marriages and are complete, ~1.1 million are baptisms, remainder are deaths)

2. Citizen Rolls of the Bratislava/Preßburg, 1630–1871 (New): ~10,300 entries; contain surname, given name, profession, city of origin, confession and age.

3. Marriage Index for Vienna, 1542–~1860: ~4,000 new entries, over 846,000 online

4. Baptismal Index for Vienna, 1585–1900: ~80,000 new, 630,000 online

5. Catholic Register Indices: ~160,000 entries added from Lower and Upper Austria, Burgenland, Bohemia and Moravia; Burgenland data was for Lockenhaus.

6. Jewish Familiants in Prague, to 1848 (New)

7. Jewish Marriages of Prague, 1784-1804 (New)

Additional Genealogical Resources: Margaret Kaiser recently pointed out two additional sources for genealogical and family data. The first is the beta website of at, appropriately,, which describes itself with text:

Search 463,000 pages of historical directories (business, address, telephone, etc., primarily from Central and Eastern Europe), 28,000 pages of 64 yizkor books (memorials to Jewish communities destroyed during the Holocaust), 32,000 pages of Polish and Russian military documents (lists of officers, casualties, etc.), 40,000 pages of community and personal histories, and 23,000 pages of Polish secondary school annual reports and other school sources. More genealogical resources are being added daily.

They also note that most search results link directly to the corresponding scanned page images, which often require the .DjVu plugin for your web browser. I've not tested this plugin (link for download given on the site) but I did a few searches within the OCR'd (optical character recognition) data indexes... they were quick and display useful results, however, not much in these pages apply to Burgenland. Nonetheless, the site may be of use to you if you have wider interest in Central and Eastern Europe, or if the additional resources they plan to add eventually cover our area.

The other resource is the list of Repositories of Primary Sources at the University of Idaho (which, unfortunately, will no longer be updated after the end of the year). The main index is at and claims it is:

A listing of over 5000 websites describing holdings of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical photographs, and other primary sources for the research scholar.

This does not get you access to these resources but can point you to where things are, assuming you wish to pursue such things further.

Book coverUpdate on book "The Burgenländer Emigration to America": As I will do for a while, here is this month's update on purchases of the English issue of the 3rd edition of Dr. Walter Dujmovits' book “Die Amerika-Wanderung Der Burgenländer.”

As of November 28, 735 copies had been purchased and the book rank reached 422, a new low (which is good, as it means only 421 active books on Lulu have sold more).

The book is available for online purchase at a list price of $7.41, plus tax & shipping. See the BB homepage for a link to the information / ordering page and for any current discounts. For those of you thinking about Christmas stocking stuffers, there is currently a 35% discount offer (runnng through December 2) for those who have a Lulu account and are logged in ("guest" checkouts do not work): but checkout code SAVE35 is good for only one checkout per account. Establishing a Lulu account is free, easy and allows tracking of your order, so I do recommend that approach! 

Burgenland Recipes: This one comes via Willi Schmidt, who says, "I may have doctored up the English a little bit, but the writing is my mother’s." If you know Willi's history (previously reported in the BB newsletters), you know that he, his mother Martha and his other family members were deported after WW-II in 1946 from Pernau, Hungary (a Burgenland border village). Martha passed away in 2008... but her recipe survives. However, do read her final words at the end of this recipe! (With that thought in mind, a recipe for a non-yeast version of Kletzenbrot can be found in Newsletter 182! And other versions can be found with a web search.)

KLETZENBROT (from Martha Meltsch Schmidt)
(Fruit Bread) two loaves

5½ c. flour                 2  packages of dry yeast
1½ c. dried prunes, cooked day before in red wine
1¼ c. dried figs, cut up    1¼ c. dried apricots, cut up
1½ c. dried pears, cut up   1¼ c. golden raisins
2  c. chopped walnuts        ¼ c. sugar
 ½ tsp salt                  ¼ tsp anise seed
 ¼ tsp caraway seed          ¼ tsp ground cloves

* use spices to your taste; * everything room temperature

- mix dried fruit and walnuts; combine flour, sugar, salt and spices; prepare yeast per directions on package; add yeast mixture to flour mix; add dried fruit and nuts; add as much red wine and water to make dough moist; knead well

- place in greased pan for first rising; cover and let rise for an hour

- divide dough into two loaves; place in 8" dia. greased layer cake pans; cover and let rise for an hour

- bake at 350º for one hour; test with toothpick

"This is my recipe. You make yours. Good luck!"

Genealogical Cartoon of the Month:


Robert Chapman wrote to me with a question about the Leitha River. He was in Lébény, Hungary, after two days in Gols, Burgenland, both visits as part of a European trip in early October. He commented that he had driven to Gattendorf (Burgenland) "to view and photograph the Leitha River. So I have confirmed that Gols was not Transleithana. However, I remain uncertain about Lébény, Hungary. With your vast knowledge of the area, might you be able to tell me on which side of the Leitha is Lébény situated?"

I replied (in part): That’s an interesting question, Bob. The Leitha is relatively short, starting 6 or 7 miles S-SW of Weiner Neustadt, becoming part of the border between the Lower Austria and Burgenland from near Neufeld an der Leitha until just beyond Leithaprodersdorf, and then again between Bruck an der Leitha and Gattendorf. It then cuts SE across the tip of Burgenland and goes into Hungary just northeast of Nickelsdorf, where it becomes known as the Latja River. From there it flows southeast to Mosonmagyaróvár, where it terminates and empties into the Moson arm of the Danube River. Lébény is another 10-15 miles further S-SE of Mosonmagyaróvár.

Now, if you consider the Leitha mostly as a diagonal arc from SW to NE (i.e., ignoring its further run to the SE beyond Gattendorf) it is a crude line dividing Vienna and old Austria (to its NW) and Budapest and old Hungary (to its SE), which is the way geographers think of it when speaking of Cisleitha (Austria) versus Transleitha (Hungary). In this sense, Lébény, being definitely to the SE of the arc, is “Beyond the Leitha” (Trans) rather than “On this side of the Leitha” (Cis), at least from a Viennese perspective.

By the way, by that same commonly-accepted notation, Gols is also Transleitha (as it was part of Hungary until 1921 and is SE of the arc). You must have misspoke in your statement about Gols.

Bob replied (in part): For what it’s worth, I spent one night each in Györ and Mosonmagyaróvár. My hotel in Mosonmagyaróvár, the Engler (quaint little place), is located on the bank of the “Little Danube”. Curious that Gols is Transleitha since the town is definitely west of the Leitha River. The river is even east of the M1.

I replied: The problem is that the Leitha River is more like a wide inverted U and only the upper left and top part of it was the border… but that was the part that was nearest to Vienna so gave the Cis--Trans divide its name. Burghardt in his book “The Political Geography of Burgenland,” says “The river became the symbol of the boundary so that the two halves of the dual monarchy were often referred to as Trans-Leitha (Hungary), and Cis-Leitha (Austria). The most cursory glance at the map reveals, however, that the Leitha is by no means consistently the boundary; instead the line moves back and forth, with three departures eastward from the stream. The Leitha carries the boundary for only three-fifths of the distance between Neudörfl and Gattendorf. In the continuing border discord between Hungary and Lower Austria, the Leitha was not only a symbol of the boundary, but also became a symbol of the discord concerning the placement of the line.

In effect, the part of the river that is in current Burgenland and in Hungary had nothing to do with defining and naming the boundary, so you should not determine East vs. West (Trans vs. Cis) by those portions. Only the small part that was along the “Thousand Year Border” between Austria and Hungary (Neudörfl to Gattendorf ) is informative… so forget that it also runs from Gattendorf to Mosonmagyarovar! Likewise, if you draw a line between Vienna and Budapest, that line would cross the (old) border at the Leitha, thus the names.

By the way, the Leitha (Latja) dumps into the Little Danube about a half-mile straight north of your hotel (a somewhat longer distance, though, if you follow city streets to there, as you’ll have to work westward and then eastward around the bend in the Little Danube).

Some follow-up comments: The concept of Cis- vs. Trans-Leitha came into being when the Austro-Hungarian Empire became the Dual Monarchy due to the Compromise of 1867.

(shown in pink in the image to the right) was the common but unofficial denotation for the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, i.e., for "Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder" ("The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council"), otherwise known as Austria, with a population of about 20 million.

(shown in green) was the term applied to the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St Stephen" (Hungarian: Szent István Koronájának Országai or A Magyar Szent Korona Országai; German: Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone), otherwise known as Hungary, with a population of about 15 million.

[Aside: The blue section was known as The Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina and was part of the Ottoman Empire in 1867. However, it was occupied by Austria-Hungary in 1878 and formally annexed in 1908 and became a separate, third part of Austria-Hungary.]

For those interested in the details, the image below shows the constituent parts of Cis- and Trans-Leitha in 1867, along with their capital cities; the associated text provides the key to the numbered parts as well as, in square brackets [], the successor nation(s) they are part of now:

Cisleithania (Empire of Austria): 1. Bohemia [Czech Republic], 2. Bukovina [Romania, Ukraine], 3. Carinthia [Austria, Italy, Slovenia], 4. Carniola [Slovenia], 5. Dalmatia [Croatia], 6. Galicia [Poland, Ukraine], 7. Küstenland [Croatia, Italy, Slovenia], 8. Lower Austria [Austria, Czech Republic], 9. Moravia [Czech Republic], 10. Salzburg [Austria], 11. Silesia [Czech Republic, Poland], 12. Styria [Austria, Slovenia], 13. Tyrol [Austria, Italy], 14. Upper Austria [Austria], 15. Vorarlberg [Austria];
Transleithania (Kingdom of Hungary): 16. Hungary [Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Austria, Serbia, Ukraine, Slovenia, Poland], 17. Croatia-Slavonia [Croatia, Slovenia];
Austrian-Hungarian Condominium:
18. Bosnia and Herzegovina [Bosnia-Herzegovina].
In addition
, four other entities are not shown in this map: A. Lombardy (below 15) and B. Venetia (below 13) were part of Cisleithania until transfer to Italy in 1859 and 1866; and C. the free city of Fiume [now Rijeka, Croatia] and D. Hungary's Militaergrenze (Military Border) [to Croatia, Serbia and Romania in 1872] were part of Transleithania.

It should be noted that the lands that became Burgenland were part of Transleithania, as they were part of Hungary prior to their transfer to Austrian political control and the formation of Burgenland in 1921, which is also when its parent entity known as Austria-Hungary was deconstructed.

It should also be noted that, when your ancestors wrote "Austria" as their place of origin, they could have been (correctly) referring to any of the 18 numbered entities in the above map (as well as the four entities, A-D, not on the map). Likewise, a claim of "Hungary" could also refer to Croatia, Slavonia, the Condominium, Fiume or the pre-1872 Militaergrenze, as well as Hungary itself. While it is feasible, it is nonetheless unlikely that "Hungary" would have been used to refer to an entity in the Cisleitha half.

A slightly different presentation of the disposition of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, one with modern national boundaries, is shown below:


I have mentioned before that the Burgenland state government provides population statistics via their site at Being a statistician by training (though now retired), I remain interested in statistical data, as I believe it, when properly considered, provides valuable insights.

The Burgenland population statistics are one such collection of data that fascinate me (I mentioned it previously as recently as Newsletter 246, where I compared percentages of 95+ year-olds in the US and Burgenland populations). In this article, I wish to present a few items for your consideration from those data.

The first is for how the Burgenland population changed in year 2012 (the most recent year available on the website). Data are presented for each independent District (Bezirk) and Free City (Freistadt), though for my purposes I also add free cities Rust and Eisenstadt into the Eisenstadt-Umgebung district, showing the combined numbers in italics and a smaller font size, as I did for the separate numbers for the free cities. I've also rearranged the districts to present them from north to south, as I believe that arrangement helps our understanding of these data.

Population Change in 2012
Bezirk-Freistadt Births Deaths Birth/Death Balance Immigrants Emigrants Migration Balance Population Balance
Neusiedl am See (2) 426 615 -189 2,195 1,536 659 470
Eisenstadt-Umgebung (1) 329
Eisenstadt-Stadt 137 149 -12 1,204 958 246 234
Rust-Stadt 18 24 -6 82 45 37 31
Mattersburg (4) 317 431 -114 1,480 1,287 193 79
Oberpullendorf (5) 267 503 -236 1,174 946 228 -8
Oberwart (3) 383 640 -257 1,829 1,636 193 -64
Güssing (6) 172 307 -135 1,187 1,097 90 -45
Jennersdorf (7) 106 188 -82 624 640 -16 -98
Burgenland 2,155 3,302 -1,147 11,419 9,420 1,999 852

Adapted from: Population change by municipality 2012

The first point I'd like to draw your attention to the numbers in parentheses in the first (leftmost) column. These are the 2012 population rankings of the districts, with Eisenstadt-Umgebung being the largest and ranked (1) and Jennersdorf being the smallest and ranked (7) [actual population counts are not shown]. The only variations from the north to south ordering is that Oberwart, though south of Mattersburg and Oberpullendorf, has a larger population than either of them, and that Eisenstadt-Umgebung, which is (slightly) south of district Neusiedl am See, is larger in population (and is even larger if the contained free city populations are added to the district count). (However, as the southern border of Eisenstadt-Umgebung is north of the southern border of district Neusiedl am See, one could easily argue about which is more "northern.")

Clearly, a major influence driving these rankings is distance from Vienna, and Eisenstadt-Umgebung is likely, "on average," closer to Vienna than is district Neusiedl am See. I'd also speculate that Eisenstadt-Umgebung "benefits" from having the Burgenland capital city within its bounds as well as having good freeway access to both Vienna and Wiener Neustadt. As for Oberwart, it had the largest population among the districts when Burgenland was formed in 1921 (more on this later).

The second point I'd like to draw your attention to is found in the Birth/Death Balance column, shown in light grey in the center of the table. As you can see, each district and free city had more deaths than births in 2012, leading to a combined decrease (from these forces) in Burgenland's total population by 1,147 souls in just one year! My guess (and that is all it is) is that this phenomenon is driven more by a declining birth rate than an increased death rate (as this driver of population size is common among developed nations).

The third point I'd like to draw your attention to is found in the Migration Balance column, also shown in light grey. These numbers are the difference between inflow (immigration) and outflow (emigration). It should be evident that this also is a north-to-south phenomenon, with large increases in the north that get smaller as you move south, actually turning negative for Jennersdorf. Only Oberpullendorf diverges from the trend, having a net migration increase slightly larger than its north-south ordering would suggest.

Lastly, let's look at the last column, Population Balance. This column combines the Birth/Death and Migration balance columns to arrive at an overall population change for the districts. Again, there is a clear north-to-south trend, with gains in total population in the north and decreases in the south. Only the Oberwart / Güssing ordering fails to match the north / south sequence.

Overall, Burgenland gained 852 residents in 2012, as the migration balance of +1,999 exceeded the birth/death balance of -1,147. These numbers serve to support Walter Dujmovits statement about Burgenland (from "The Burgenländer Emigration to America," 2013 English Edition), that "A land of emigrants has become a land of immigrants." Migration did not stop, but its well-trained and highly-qualified young people continue to emigrate out while foreign immigrants arrive to fill low-paying jobs that require little training.

Earlier, I had mention that Oberwart had the largest population among the districts when Burgenland was formed in 1921 and I promised more on this later. The graph below is also found among the population statistics at, though I slightly adapted it. It portrays the change in population for each Burgenland district over the time period 1923 to 2012.

If you look closely, you will see there are three "groups" of districts. Oberwart (OW), shown by the dash-dot-dash light blue line, is relatively unique in that its population has stayed relatively constant since the end of WW-II. It started in 1923 with the greatest district population and held that position until the mid-2000s, when both Neusiedl am See (ND) and Eisenstadt-Umgebung (EU) slightly exceeded it. Neusiedl and Eisenstadt, along with Mattersburg (MA), make up the second group and are shown with dashed lines. The districts in this group are the three northernmost and all are increasing in population. The last group, shown in solid lines, consist of Oberpullendorf (OP), Güssing (GS), and Jennersdorf (JE). These are three of the four southernmost districts and all show a sustained decline in population. Oberwart, the fourth of the southernmost districts, has also lost population compared to 1923 but, as noted above, arrested that decline after WW-II and has maintained its population since then.

Oberpullendorf has the dubious distinction of losing the most population, declining from the second most populous district to fifth place now. Eisenstadt-Umgebung, on the other hand, has risen from fourth to first.

Overall, these graphic data show that the 2012 data presented in the table above are not inconsistent with the long-term trend of population increases in the north and decreases in the south. However, it should be clear that the declines are driven mainly by the decreased birth rates while the growth in the north by a positive migration balance. Again, "A land of emigrants has become a land of immigrants."

The last item I wish to show from the population statistics at is the chart provided below:

As the chart indicates, this is a "Population Pyramid," with age rising from zero at the bottom to 100 at the top, and the bars indicating counts of men (in the left half) and women (in the right half) at each age value. Thus we see that the largest age groups occur around age 50 and consist of ~2500 men and ~2500 women at each age. The chart is fairly symmetrical up to about age 35, where we see the start of a slight preponderance of women over men. This effect becomes quite marked for those over age 75. Again, this is a common phenomenon across the developed world.

The "pinching in" of counts for those in the 65-69 age range is, presumably, due to the effects of WW-II, when many men died or were injured (and thus were unable to have children), and when the war-induced poverty and Soviet occupation after the war made it difficult to justify having children, even among those able to do so. The fact that the age groups on either side (those in the 70-72 year-old ages and in the 64 and younger) are larger strongly suggests that this was a real decline, as one would not expect these surrounding groups (especially the older group) to have significantly larger counts than the middle group.

The darker blue down the center of the chart represent those born outside of Burgenland (Ausländer / immigrants); the lighter blue represent those born in Burgenland (Inländer). As you can see, the Ausländern tend to be of prime working age (and they likely are responsible for the Ausländer children shown among the youngest groups). Given the data in the table that I showed in the first section of this article, it seems reasonable to believe that the majority of these Ausländern are in the northern districts, where they will serve to continue the growth in the north with their future generations.

I hope you found these data interesting and informative. If so, you can find more by exploring the pages at under menu sequence "Land, Politik & Verwaltung" > "Land" > "Statistik Burgenland."


BB member Kevin Krizman, currently of Umkirch, Germany, wrote to say (in part): Hi Tom, just a quick note to let you know we lost one of our own this month. My uncle, Ray Bubick, 81, died peacefully (if unexpectedly) at home on Oct 12, 2014. His obituary is here: obituary/Raymond-Joseph-Bubick/Highlands-Ranch-CO. Ray was a great fan of the Burgenland Bunch [Ed: ...and a long-time member; the earliest note from Ray I found in the newsletters dates from July 2003, wherein he commented on a goulash recipe, noted a 2002 trip to Burgenland and his 12 first cousins there, and invited BB members to stop by in Denver to share some goulash!]. He dutifully and enthusiastically forwarded the newsletter to members of the family every month (even to those of us with a separate subscription :-)). I know Ray appreciated and enjoyed being involved with the Burgenland group; he was responsible for infecting me with enthusiasm for Burgenland as well.

I offered my sympathies to the family and asked if it would be okay to run a note in this newsletter about Ray's passing. Kevin said that would be fine, and then went on to say: "Among the things Ray Bubick left behind is a memoir (unfortunately unfinished), which included a fairly detailed section on his Burgenland ancestry, and is a nice first person account of growing up as the child of Burgenland immigrants."

Kevin included the text and asked if I thought it might be of interest to our readership. After reading it through, I concluded that yes, it would be of interest but was too long for a single article... but that it would work if I serialized it into two or three sections. So, below is the first installment of Ray's memoir, the "Forward" and "Ancestry" sections:


As a young boy growing up in Northern Indiana, I often wondered about my ancestors, my heritage, and in particular, my grandparents. All my friends and pals had grandparents, so I often asked, why didn't I? I envied my pals; their doting grandparents always seemed to have presents for them, always seemed to have "hugs," and always acted as surrogate parents!

Well, of course I did have grandparents, but I never saw them. Both my father and mother were among the many European immigrants who came to this country in the early part of the 20th century and left their respective families back in the "Old Country," as they often referred to it. I believe when they left the "Old Country" my parents resolved in their minds that, most likely, they would never see their parents again. Travel and communications back in those days was expensive, tedious, arduous and not often repeated. I suppose I sensed this as well, and hence resolved in my young mind that I too would never see my grandparents. As it turned out, I never did, as both sets of my grandparents passed away in the '40s and '50s. I don't know the dates of the passing of my paternal grandparents but, having some old pictures of them, I know they lived to be close to 70 years in age. My maternal grandfather lived to age 72 and died in 1946, and my maternal grandmother at the age of 64, in 1944.

Consequently, I never heard the wondrous stories of my "grandpa" or "grandma" or sat upon the knee of those wonderful people who supplemented the joyful young lives of my buddies. My father rarely, if ever, talked about his parents. In fact, I can't remember him ever saying anything at all. I don't know why he never did. I suppose if I had pressed him he would have talked about them. My mother did on occasion talk about her parents. From time-to-time she referred to the austere environment under which she was raised and described the rigorous religious upbringing she had. As a young boy, I wasn't particularly interested in hearing the rigors of my mother's upbringing. As I recall, my father left Austria because he sought the proverbial "better" life that was being promised in America; and my mother came to America because she often said: "I didn't want to grow up to be a farmer's wife."

It wasn't until my adult life, the mid 1970's, that I started to take a real interest in my ancestry and in particular my many relatives who lived in the "Old Country," even though I had a substantial number of relatives here in America. But, most of my relatives were in the motherland of my parents, Austria! In 1970, my first cousin, Irene Bubits from Vienna, had already visited me; and both travel and communications had so vastly improved that I realized that now I could see, hear and visit my ancestors.

So why I am doing this story of my life? Believe me, it is not for any narcissistic reason. My main reason for writing this is because I hope whoever reads this someday will read it with the thought that I wanted to retain some "family history" and pass on to my future generations some of the thoughts and ideas about which I often wondered as a small child, and how my life evolved as I matured.


The Province of Burgenland in present-day eastern Austria, and the birth place of both of my parents, has experienced the vicissitudes of history. It was part of "central" Austria during the reign Emperor Franz Josef of the Hapsburgs in the late 19th and early 20th Century. At one time, it was part of the ancient Croatian Empire and has changed its registry after each significant war. Hence, the languages spoken in the Province are varied. German is now the official language, but many still speak Serbo/Croatian (a Slavic language akin to Russian); and many speak Hungarian, because of its proximity to the Hungarian border, which is neither a Germanic nor Slavic language.

My father claimed he could speak German, Hungarian, Croatian, and eventually English. Croatian was his native tongue however. My mother could also speak the same languages, although her Hungarian was not too good. As a young girl, she too spoke primarily Croatian, and that was the language under which I was reared for the first three years of my life. In fact, I spoke no English until I was three years old, as we lived in a Slavic enclave my first three years. When we moved to 1850 E. Bowman Street (South Bend) in 1936, my parents decided that little "Raymond" should now learn English. There was no demand made by my parents or any of my relatives that German or Croatian be spoken in the local schools under a bilingual program. They understood that this was America, and they had to learn to speak English.

After we moved in 1936, I would speak part Croatian and part English to my pals, and at times it was comical. I used to get kidded by my pals, so as a result I discouraged my parents from speaking to me in Croatian. Whenever they did, I protested, "Mom, speak to me in English only!" Slowly my proficiency in that wonderful language faded, until the time when I could barely understand the language. To this day, I rue the decision I made to discourage its use, and only wish my parents had persisted in keeping me proficient in the language.

My father Joseph (or Joshko in Croatian & Hungarian, and phonetically pronounced Yoshko), was born in the village of Grossmutchen, a very small farming community in Burgenland. My father had no middle name, as most children born there in that time did not. He was born on March 30, 1903. His father was Stefan Bubits, and his mother's name was Karolina Huber. I'm not sure in which order of birth he came [Ed: fifth of six], but he had brothers Frank [Ed: b 1898], Steve [Ed: b 1899] (who I believe were older), Dennis [Ed: b 1907] (younger, and whom I knew and loved, since he lived in the USA); and a younger [Ed: older] brother named Louchey [Ed: Lajos, b 1901] (or Louie in English). I am told that Louie either died at birth or shortly thereafter. My Aunt Emma (my Uncle Dennis' wife) tells me that there was also a baby girl [Ed: Maria Francisca, b 1895, d 1897] born to my grandparents, who never survived; although the accuracy of this is in question. I'm not sure when my father arrived in the U.S., but I believe it was in 1924 [Ed: he left Rotterdam on 16 Jan 1924 and arrived in NYC on 27 Jan 1924 on the SS Rotterdam; going to Chicago to join uncle Anton Blazowitsch]. So, my guess is that he was near 20 years old when he arrived.

My mother Margaret (or Marga in Croatian), also had no middle name, and was born on June 7, 1909 to Johann Fleischhaker, and Rosalia Buczolich, in another small farming community in Burgenland, called Nikitsch. She was one of seven children, three of whom eventually settled in the USA. Besides my mother, her brothers John (Johann) and Joe (Joshko) moved to America. My mother came to America with her brother Joe. They entered the United States on July 4, 1930, on the ship, Hamburg. I still have the original two wicker suitcases with which they both traveled. (I’ve given the suitcases to son, Kevin). My mother told me they had to stay an additional day on the ship because of the July 4th celebration. As with all immigrants who entered the US, they processed through the central processing facility on Ellis Island. I'm sure their names (as well as that of my father) are recorded somewhere in the archives of Ellis Island.

[I have often marveled at the courage and fortitude it must have taken my parents to forsake their parents, families and friends and move to a strange land; not knowing the language, not having a job; and possessing only a burning desire to succeed by taking advantage of the opportunities afforded in America. I wonder how many people would do that today!]

My mother’s four other siblings, stayed in Nikitsch. She had one other brother, Anton, and three sisters, Elizabeth, Maria (Mariza) and Anka.

The children of my father's brothers are as follows:

Brother Children Grandchildren
Frank Bubits Irene Bubits
never married, taught music in Vienna, retired
Stefan Bubits Stefan Bubits
never married, lives in Grossmutschen
Anna Abrecht
lives in Switzerland
Husband: Freddie
Stefan, Mark, & Annette
Dennis Bubick
(died 1982)
married Emma (died 2002)
William, now deceased Bill Jr. in California, now deceased

The children of my mother's brothers' and sisters' are as follows:

Brother / Sister Children Grandchildren
John Fleischaker,
married to Mary
Arlene, lives in South Bend, widow of Bill Cerney  
Joseph Fleischaker, married to Mary Joe Jr., a lawyer, lives in Chicago, has a half sister, Alice Owen Alice, daughter of Mary from previous marriage
Anton Fleischaker Anna Jordanich, married to Martin, lives in Nikitsch Monika, Franz in Nikitsch, and a son who was murdered in Greece
Raiza Balogh, married to Peter, lives in Nikitsch Richard and Petra
Johann Fleischaker, owns a winery in Nikitsch Vicent, Maria and Gabbriella
Elizabeth (Lisa),
eldest of mother's siblings
Maria Jordanich, lives in Nikitsch
Franz, deceased  
married name is unknown
Paula Drimmel, married to Joe, lives in Minihof MaryAnne and Monika
Hilde Palatin, married to Hans, lives in Vienna Eveline and Donnela
Maritze (Maria) Prikosovits,
youngest of mother's siblings
Felix, insurance broker in Vienna
Johan (Yonchie), lives in Minihof
Hermann, computer programmer, lives in Vienna Hermann, married to Karin, children: Rajko and Vanja

Although my father's original family name was BUBITS, the name has taken on a few derivatives over the years. BUBITS I believe, is the German derivative, and is the name my cousins Irene, and Stefan have carried over. My father used the BUBICH spelling, which I believe is the Slavic derivative and which he brought to the States. There are many BUBICHs in Burgenland. My uncle Dennis used the BUBICK spelling when he came to America. The 'ICH' in the German language has a hard "EK" pronunciation, thus the derivation of the BUBICK spelling. My birth certificate has the "H" ending. When I was a senior at Notre Dame, I had the name officially changed to BUBICK.

During a trip to Vienna in 1993, I noticed that there were 12 or 15 BUBITS in the Vienna phone directory. My aunt Emma believes they are all related to us and are descendants of the BUBITS clan from Burgenland. In my travels around the USA, I've noticed very few BUBICKs: one in Chicago, but I'm not sure they are related in any way. The name BUBECK is actually quite common through out the states but, to the best of my knowledge, has no relationship to my relatives. If one goes to the computer Internet, and searches for BUBICKs, one can find several BUBICKs in New York, Pennsylvania and other places.

My mother's family name comes from the German word Fleish (meat) and is literally interpreted as "meat-cutter." In reality, I don't believe any of the Fleischhakers were, in fact, butchers, however my Uncle Frank Bubits (Irene's father), was indeed a professional butcher in Vienna.

Strange as it seems, my father and mother did not know each other in Burgenland, even though they were reared in villages not more than a few miles apart. They did not meet until they did so in South Bend. My father had been married before he married my mother. He was married to a woman named Agnes, who died rather suddenly in 1929 and left my father as a widower with my half sister Lillian [Ed: Lillian was mother to Kevin Krizman, who shared Ray's memoir with us]. Lillian was seven years older than I. There is a little mystery (if that's the right word) behind Agnes' death—not that she was mysteriously murdered or anything like that—but, from my Aunt Emma, I got the impression that Agnes committed suicide. Anyway, my father and mother met in South Bend sometime in 1931 and were married in February 1932.

Ed: This concludes Part 1 of Ray's memoir; Part 2, "Growing Up," will follow in the January 2015 Newsletter (December's newsletter will be only a short, year-end review and wrap-up).


John Bodisch, of Bethlehem, PA, recently became a member of the Burgenland Bunch (BB). At the same time, John joined the Burgenland DNA Study Group. “I thought … why not kill two birds with one stone," he said. The BB is a tremendous resource for providing information to complete a family tree, and the Burgenland DNA Study provides insight into someone’s deep ancestral roots.

The DNA test is non-intrusive. All that is involved is a swab from the inside of your cheek. John has already processed his DNA kit and got his results, which includes a personalized certificate prepared by a researcher from Hungary.

John became very interested in his family roots this past summer when he was on a work-study program from Moravian College, which he attends. He worked on a German farm for five weeks, where he immersed himself in the language while studying agricultural and sustainability practices. Taking advantage of his proximity to Burgenland, John also visited relatives in Glasing (a town near Güssing), where he was greeted with open arms and lots of delicious Austrian cooking.

John is scheduled to graduate with a degree in Secondary Education in English and German studies this coming year. He would love to teach German (or English in Austria). He feels that this will bring him closer to his ancestral roots.

Anyone interested in the Burgenland DNA Study project should contact Frank Paukowits at for details. “We’re always looking for new participants,” says Frank. There are 130 participants at this time.


Editor: This is part of our series designed to recycle interesting articles from the BB Newsletters of 10 years ago. We do this, of course, because we continue to attract new members to the BB, who likely have not read these old articles (they are in our Archive section) and because the articles are simply worth reprinting again (as some of us older members may have forgotten their content!).

I chose the article for this month because it touches on a topic discussed last month in Article 2; that topic being the need (or not) for a Passport to emigrate from Hungary in the 1800s. It also touches on the requirements needed to qualify to emigrate.

November 30, 2004

BREITENBRUNN (from Albert Schuch)

In response to a query concerning this village Albert Schuch writes: Dujmovits' book does not list any immigrant names for Breitenbrunn. As in the exhibition catalog "nach Amerika", the chart entry is for 1854 without any names.

The main text however says (on page 119, Das Gebiet [region] um den Neusiedlersee):

"In Breitenbrunn sollen die ersten Amerikawanderer erst im Jahr 1907 den Ort verlassen haben ..." (the first immigrant came from here in 1907)

The source for the earlier Breitenbrunn data appears to be an article published by Hans Paul. I am attaching a translated summary of this article (was published in BB newsletter 34) below.

Emigration period 1851-55: Some time ago, Hans PAUL, retired teacher and Burgenland historian, found material on early emigrants in the Györ-Sopron Archives (Györ-Sopronmegyei Levéltar) in Sopron:

On 9 Aug 1850 Franz PAYER of Balf (Wolfs, near Sopron), Hungary, 26 y old son of the Lutheran pastor, wrote to the k.k. Bezirkskommissariat in Sopron (Ödenburg) for permission to emigrate to America, where his brother already owned a farm with 160 acres land. The k.k. (kaiserlich-königliches Bezirkskommissariat) gave the permission, because: Franz P. has already served in the army; his home village, Wolfs, has no objections; his father has no objections -- on the contrary, will provide financial support; he has two younger brothers, so in case the army would need soldiers in the future, one of them could replace him. Based on this information the k.k. Distriktsregierung (district government) in Sopron gave permission to emigrate and provided Franz P. with an emigration passport.

From 1851 onwards (until ????), those who wish to emigrate had to appear in person at the k.k. Regierungskommissariat in Sopron, where they have to prove their ability to cover the emigration costs by themselves. (Ship passage cost Bremen - New York in 1855: 65 silver florins per person, children younger than 10 years pay 57 silver florins, babies younger than one year pay nothing). Before they receive the emigration passport, they have to renounce Austrian citizenship as well as the right to return to Austria.

In spring 1855 Johann MARILITSCH, 43 year old bricklayer from Großhöflein, asks for and gets permission to emigrate to America. He is married and has 8 children (aged 5 - 17 years, partly from earlier marriages of the couple, so some have the surname ROSENITSCH).

In March 1852 Franz WALTER, watchmaker from Eisenstadt asks for permission to emigrate with his wife, 1 year old foster-child Samuel FRIEBE and 11 year old adopted child Elisabeth KOPF. His parents and his brothers and sisters have emigrated in 1851. In September 1852 Magdalena KISS from Eisenstadt asks for permission to emigrate to New York. She wants to marry a cabinetmaker from Vienna who has settled there.

Emigrants from Purbach: in 1854: Josef TURKOVITS (1854); in 1855: Franz SCHWARZ; Michael HACKSTOCK, 56 years, his wife Elisabeth, 46 years, son Franz, 20, daughter Maria, 10; Paul SCHÜLLER, 33 years, his wife Maria, 30, and their daughter Theresia, 3 years; Paul HUBER, 39 years, his wife (36 y), and 7 children aged 1 - 17 years; Stefan SANDHOFER, 44, his wife Johanna, 41, children Paul (19), Franz (4) and Maria (1).

Emigrants from Breitenbrunn in 1855: Josef RESCH, 57 years, his wife Elisabeth, 40 years, their 10 children (3 - 21 years), and one grandchild; Anton HÄNDLER, 26 years, his wife Theresia, 30, and their 3 children (2-6 years); Gregor JANISCH, his wife Kunigunde and their 5 children (5-20 years).

Further emigrants in 1855: Matthias STROMER, weaver from Schwendgraben; Josef BAUER from Eisenstadt, 34 years, with wife Veronika; Josef HAIDER from Walbersdorf (his 53 years old brother is already living in America, where he owns 2 houses, 160 Joch farming land and 80 Joch forests; his brother has no heirs), 40 years old; Andreas PILLER, bricklayer from Großhöflein, 14 year old son Franz and 10 year old daughter Theresia; Paul REINER from Purbach, his wife and two children (his brother already in America).

(Source: Hans PAUL: Frühe Amerikawanderer unserer Heimat. In: Burgenländische Forschungen. Sonderheft VI. (Festschrift für Karl SEMMELWEIS). Eisenstadt 1981, p.133-151)



Nov. 20 - Dec. 21: Christkindlmarkt in Bethlehem. Info:

Nov. 21 - Dec. 23: Weihnachtsmarkt in Bethlehem. Info:

Tuesday, Dec. 2: German-English Advent Singstunde at Central Moravian Church in Bethlehem. Info:

Saturday, Dec. 6: Christkindlnacht at the Evergreen Heimatbund in Fleetwood. Info:

Saturday, Dec. 6: Christmas Concert & Dance at the Lancaster Liederkranz. Music by the Lancaster Liederkranz Chorus and the Joe Weber Orchestra. Info:

Sunday, Dec. 7: Christkindlmarkt at the Reading Liederkranz. Info:

Sunday, Dec. 7: Christmas Dance at the Holy Family Club in Nazareth. Music by the Walt Groller Orchestra. Info:

Saturday, Dec. 13: Christmas Concert & Dance at the Coplay Sängerbund. Music by the Coplay Sängerbund Chorus and the Joe Weber Orchestra. Info:

Saturday and Sunday, Dec. 27-28: "Die Fledermaus" at the Reading Liederkranz. Performed by the Berks Opera Company. Info:

Wednesday, Dec.31: Silvesterball at the Reading Liederkranz. Music by the Walt Groller Orchestra. Info:

Wednesday, Dec. 31: New Year's Eve at the Lancaster Liederkranz. Music by the Maria and John Quartet. Info:

Wednesday, Dec. 31: New Year's Eve at the Evergreen Heimatbund in Fleetwood. Music by the Josef Kroboth Orchestra. Info:

Wednesday, Dec. 31: New Year's Eve at the Coplay Sängerbund. Info:


Friday, December 5, 7 pm: Heimat Abend. Austrian Donau Club, 545 Arch Street, $3. Music by Joe Rogers and his band.

Friday, December 19, 7:30 pm: Heurigan Abend. Austrian Donau Club, 545 Arch Street, $3. Music by Schachtelgebirger Musikanten.


Anne Fleming (née Kullowitsch)

Anne A. Fleming, 90, passed away on Thursday, Nov. 13, 2014 in Arlington Heights.

The daughter of the late George and Anna (Reicher) Kullowitsch, she was born Jan. 3, 1924 in Kleinpetersdorf, Austria and had lived in several communities, including Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Vernon Hills and Gurnee and also enjoyed a time of retirement in Brooksville, FL.

Surviving are 8 children, Raymond (Phyllis) Fleming, Barbara (Michael) Carney, Peter (Colleen) Fleming, Kevin (Anne) Fleming, Dr. Maureen Fleming, Gregory (Beth) Fleming, Laura Sherwood and Tim (Mary) Fleming; 17 Grandchildren, 14 Great Grandchildren and her sister, Sr. Martinus Kullowitsch. She was preceded in death by her husband Raymond in 1994.

Mass of Christian Burial will be held at 11 a.m. Tuesday, Nov. 18, at St. Mary of Vernon Catholic Church, 236 W. Hwy. 45, Indian Creek. Visitation will be for one hour prior to the mass at church. Interment will follow at St. Michael the Archangel Cemetery, Palatine. Memorial contributions can be made to either St. Mary of Vernon Church or to Midwest Palliative and Hospice Care Center. Arrangements are by the Burnett-Dane Funeral Home in Libertyville. Info: 847-362-3009 or please sign the guest book at

Published in Chicago Suburban Daily Herald on Nov. 17, 2014.


John Jelosits

John Jelosits, 86, of Whitehall, Pennsylvania, passed away November 24, 2014 at home.

Born in Coplay, Pennsylvania and raised in Reinersdorf, Austria, he was a son of the late Johann and Paulina (Sorger) Jelosits.

He was the loving husband of Anna (Fischl) Jelosits. They celebrated their 56th wedding anniversary on November 22, 2014.

John was a member of St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic Church, Whitehall. He was employed by Roche Chemicals and lived in Fairfield, NJ. both for 30 years, retiring in 1990. He enjoyed his talent of wood working as a hobby.

Survivors: Wife; son; James E. and his wife Marita of New Jersey; brothers, Joe and his wife Marie of Connecticut, Franz and wife Anna in Austria; sister, Hela Sommer in Austria; sister-in-law, Hilda of Bronx, NY; grandson, Troy and a granddaughter, Lindsey; nieces and nephews. John was predeceased by a brother; Willie.

Services: Viewing: 9:00am - 10:00am Saturday, November 29, 2014 followed by a mass of Christian burial at 10:00am, all in St. Elizabeth Catholic Church 619 Fullerton Ave. Whitehall, PA. Entombment will be in Grandview Cemetery Mausoleum. (

Published in Morning Call on Nov. 27, 2014


Juliana Wolf (née Eichner)

Juliana Wolf, 85, of Allentown, Pennsylvania, passed away on November 25, 2014.

She was the wife of the late Robert J. Wolf, who died in 1994.

Born in Rudersdorf, Austria on May 17, 1929, she was a daughter of the late Johann and Karolina (Flasch) Eichner.

Survivors: Sons, Gary and wife Loretta, and granddaughter Liesl, and Michael and grandson Jacob. She was predeceased by 10 brothers and sisters.

Services: Viewing Monday, December 1, 10am till time of service at 11am. Both at Weber Funeral Home, 1619 W. Hamilton St., Allentown. Interment to follow at Cedar Hill Memorial Park, Allentown.

Published in Morning Call on Nov. 28, 2014


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