The News
Dedicated to Austrian-Hungarian Burgenland Family History


February 28, 2011, © 2011 by The Burgenland Bunch
All rights reserved. Permission to copy excerpts granted if credit is provided.

Our 15th Year, Interim Editor: Thomas Steichen, Copy Editor: Maureen Tighe-Brown

The Burgenland Bunch Newsletter is issued monthly online.
It was founded by Gerald Berghold (who retired in Summer 2008 and died in August 2008).

Current Status Of The BB:
* Members: 1910 * Surname Entries: 6577 * Query Board Entries: 4544 * Number of Staff Members: 17

This newsletter concerns:




(by Mary Rushing)


(Matt Boisen et al.)

(by Gary Gabrich)

(by Frank Paukowits)

(Anne Reed Shannon et al.)


(courtesy of Bob Strauch, Margaret Kaiser & Kay Weber)

(courtesy of Bob Strauch & Barbara Lang)

1) THE PRESIDENT'S CORNER (by Tom Steichen)

This month we wander the web a bit, with commentaries on the new site and Burgenland web TV channel, TV-SuedOst. Hopefully, these articles will impart a bit of new knowledge for you.

Article 3 is the oddity, being an analysis and discussion about where our Burgenland emigrants settled in contrast to where we members currently live. I think it explains a bit about the times, both now and when our ancestors arrived.

We also offer reconstructions of two email threads, one thread discussing historical terminology, the other tracing the life of a single emigrant. Perhaps the first thread will help you understand the social standing of your Burgenland ancestors; the second is more a feel-good "American dream" story... I hope you enjoy it.

This month's "Historical BB Newsletter Article" also evolved out of a member comment and the discussion thread that followed it. I picked it because I thought the content was well worth republishing; however, it also shows that then, as now, member questions and comments were a key source for newsletter content and the dissemination of generally useful Burgenland-related knowledge. So do send in your questions and comments!

Gary Gabrich and Frank Paukowits provide a pair of member-written articles, Gary's being a promised BH&R follow-up about early South Bend settlers and Frank's being a note on a new DNA project, and Mary Rushing invites (some of) you to join a new group.

Of course, we also publish upcoming "Ethnic Events" and honor the recently departed in the "Burgenland Emigrant Obituaries" section.

We hope you find something herein useful, interesting or new.


Food for thought:

The budget should be balanced, the Treasury should be refilled, public debt should be reduced, the arrogance of officialdom should be tempered and controlled, and the assistance to foreign lands should be curtailed lest Rome become bankrupt. People must again learn to work, instead of living on public assistance. -- Cicero, 55 BC

So, what have we learned in 2,065 years? Evidently... nothing.


If you recently visited the LDS's online genealogical site, you already know that they have put up a new interface... one that is highly frustrating (because of bugs, slow response, and just being different) yet amazingly powerful and useful (when it works). Reading through the blog about the changes is almost hilarious: one highly positive and thrilled response followed by another decrying the insanity of replacing the old interface... and sprinkled among those are dry staff responses trying to explain why changes were made, how to find things that used to be more obvious (at least to the initiated) and asking for patience as they complete the changes.

To add to the confusion, clicking on the default LDS site has, at various times over the last year, landed on a "Pilot" site, a "Beta" site or the old site. Once at one of these, LDS has added and removed content in a seemingly willy-nilly manner... here today, gone tomorrow, back again the day after... its no wonder users are frustrated! And to fully benefit from the new features, you must now have a login and password... and some users seem reluctant to want to be identified in that way (all they ask for is a name and email address... but you don't have to tell the truth for the account to work!). Yet despite all that, I come down on the side of being thrilled with what I can now accomplish there (again, with the caveat of "when it is working").

One of the reasons I'm thrilled is that much more original content important to Midwest research (scans of census records, death records, marriage records, etc.) is online. My ancestors all settled in Minnesota (and spread out from there) and I live in North Carolina, so getting access to original records is difficult for me. Having these materials just on the other side of my keyboard is great! One nice addition are various State censuses. For example, Minnesota performed censuses in years ending in five from 1855 until 1905; given that the Federal census of 1890 was destroyed by fire, the 1885 and 1895 Minnesota state censuses are particularly valuable to me.

A second reason is that the new search facility allows both an "exact" search and an "approximate" search. As you likely know, online indexes are full of errors because the transcriber misread the record, the original author miswrote the name and/or because our ancestors had a unfortunate tendency to report their name in multiple ways over the years, even changing their country of origin. So "exact" searches require you to guess how the name might have been indexed... and this guessing the right search term is not easy! The new "approximate" search (decried by many because it returns so many seemingly unrelated results) is more powerful than the old version and has helped me find a number of records that I previously spent hours looking for yet never stumbled on the "correct" search term. In fact, one such recent search resulted in records that caused me to totally change the early history of my Burgenlanders in Minnesota... what I thought I "knew" was simply false!

So, if you have some hard to find ancestors, you might want to revisit but expect to be both frustrated and thrilled as the LDS programmers continue working through the implementation over this year!


I recently updated the "Where We Are" pages ( that are accessible from the Members pages. This is a series of map-driven data files listing BB members by state or country. For example, of our US members, 1562 have identified the state they are from (there are additional US members but we don't know their state).

Not surprisingly, Pennsylvania, with 210 members, is home to the greatest number of members from one state. This follows because Gerry Berghold (and, therefore, the BB) had roots in Pennsylvania and because Pennsylvania was a frequent destination for Burgenland emigrants. What might be a bigger surprise is that the only other states with more than 100 members are Illinois (148), Minnesota (146) and California (131). At the other end of the scale, there are no members from Mississippi and Wyoming.

These numbers caused me to wonder where, in fact, our Burgenland emigrant ancestors actually settled... or, more accurately, where did our members report that their ancestors settled. We list on our Surnames pages these destinations, so I decided to tabulate them.

In the table below, The states are listed in order of most mentions as a settlement destination and then, when there are ties in destination counts, ordered by the number of members we have from that state. So for PA, you should read the two numbers as 1226 mentions of Pennsylvania as a destination state and 210 BB members from there.
State Counts
Settled (Members)
State Counts
Settled (Members)
PA 1226 (210) WV 3 (1)
IL 638 (148) VA 1 (39)
MN 571 (146) NC 1 (30)
NY 412 (98) GA 1 (18)
MO 184 (56) MA 1 (16)
NJ 158 (81) TN 1 (11)
WI 145 (50) UT 1 (10)
IN 132 (39) NV 1 (8)
SD 122 (8) AR 1 (4)
MI 102 (36) KY 1 (4)
ND 86 (9) LA 1 (3)
NE 80 (17) AZ 0 (30)
CT 73 (22) SC 0 (13)
KS 73 (10) AL 0 (7)
OH 62 (27) DE 0 (7)
IA 53 (7) DC 0 (5)
WA 40 (31) NH 0 (5)
CA 21 (131) NM 0 (5)
MD 20 (31) HI 0 (4)
TX 19 (43) AK 0 (3)
CO 15 (26) RI 0 (3)
OR 13 (14) VT 0 (3)
FL 12 (68) ME 0 (1)
OK 7 (10) MS 0 (0)
MT 7 (7) WY 0 (0)
ID 6 (7)    

Given PA had the most destination mentions, it makes sense that it should have the most BB members. However, it would be just as sensible to argue that, because it has the most BB members, it should have the most mentions as a settlement destination! Indeed, one cannot separate these causes and effects... and I suspect both are true!

However, those emigrants and their descendants did and do move to other states, so imbalances are likely. If we look at our list, we see that, of the 4 states I mentioned above with the most BB members (PA, IL, MN and CA, in that order), the first 3 also have the most emigrant destination mentions... but CA (4th in members) is way down at 18th with only 21 destination mentions! So, our emigrant ancestors didn't go to California (as least as a first destination) but their descendants sure did! The other "sun" states, Florida (23rd in mentions but 7th in members) and Arizona (tied for 38th (with 13 other states) with 0 mentions but 16th in members) behave the same, unsurprising way. Perhaps a bigger surprise is that Virginia and North Carolina, tied at 28th (with 10 other states) with only 1 destination mention each, rank 11th and 16th in members.

In the opposite direction, look at South Dakota (SD)... it was the 8th most frequent destination with 122 mentions but ties for only 31st in count of members. The emigrants went there... but their descendants didn't stay! North Dakota (ND) is the same way (10th in mentions, 30th in members) as is Iowa (IA, 15th and 37th).

However, at least Mississippi and Wyoming, the two states with no BB members, also had no mentions as an emigrant destination.

Another (perhaps better) way to consider these data is to compare destination mentions and BB member counts to the state populations. If so, then California being 4th in BB members makes sense, as it is now our most populous state. And, a hundred years ago, in 1910, it was 12th in population, so 18th in destination mentions is not so odd. Pennsylvania was the second most populous state in 1910 (and is 6th now) and Illinois was 3rd in 1910 (5th now). Likewise, Florida (32nd in 1910, 4th now) and Arizona (46th in 1910, 16th now) make more sense. If anything, Minnesota, 19th in 1910 and 21st now in population, makes less sense being 3rd in both emigrant destination mentions and BB members.

As for the rest of the emigrant destination mentions, there were 111 mentions of USA (no state). Of other countries, Canada dominates with 217 mentions. The next most were Germany (36), Hungary (28), Australia and England (15 each), Uruguay (12), New Zealand (9), Argentina (8), Denmark (4), Slovenia and Israel (3 each), Netherlands, Croatia, France, Brazil and Sweden (2 each), and Switzerland, Italy, Romania, Poland and South Africa (1 each).

Consistent with these numbers, Canada also dominates other countries in BB membership, having 101 members (if it were ranked among the US states, it would have come in 5th in mentions and in members!). Second in BB membership among other countries is Austria with 86, but it makes little sense to rank Austria as an emigrant destination, and I have not done so. Australia (27 members), Germany (23), England (18) and Hungary (13) are the other countries with more than ten BB members.


Ed. note: We received an email from Mary Rushing asking us to included the following notice in the BB newsletter... so here it is:

Mary writes: If you have ancestors from Austria-Hungary, particularly the Burgenland area, who settled in northwest Kansas and southwest Nebraska, you might like to join our social network called Our Burgenland Roots. This fun and recently formed group is committed to compiling and sharing genealogical and related records (e.g., photos, family histories and other documents) to the mutual benefit of its members.

If you respond with your name and an e-mail address to, we’ll send to you an invitation to join.

Ed. note: At my request, Mary shared additional information about the group. It formed initially as an email exchange but, wanting a better way to do this, a member set them up in January as a private family group on, a sister site to There are currently (in mid-February) 32 members who have posted 7 family trees, 16 photo albums (holding 276 photos) and 12 data files, and who also have 58 discussion threads underway. For BB members who have family from this area, it appears to be a great group to join!


Are you nostalgic or curious about what is happening in Burgenland? Gerhard Schneller, of web TV channel TV-SuedOst, invites you to view his work. The segments provided generally appear to be 3 to 5 minutes in length and cover news, sports, culture and events of southeastern Austria and Burgenland.

He writes: Hello! My name is Gerhard Schneller. I am the producer for the web-tv channel There you can find news from south Burgenland in culture, lifestyle… (more than 160 contributions in the archive 2009/10). If you like it, share this channel as often as you want.

Mit besten Grüßen aus dem Südburgenland

Nachrichten aus dem Südosten Österreichs
Gerhard Schneller
T +43 (0) 664 / 43 22 694
Angerstr.23, A-7562 Eltendorf
Süd - Burgenland



Back in November, an email discussion was held about the terms Zsellér and Coloni and the various related words used to describe peasants in Burgenland. Matt Boisen kicked it off and others joined in.

Matt wrote: Speaking of the LDS films and land ownership, the differences between zsellers, colonii, and other Hungarian/Latin? descriptions come up. This has probably been discussed many times, but I wanted to clarify this. One of my great great grandfathers was a "colonus", the other a "zseller". The best I can understand is that these describe two land-owning peasant classes, based on "first come, first serve" and size/responsibility differences? "Colonus" is a larger farmer, from the first-settled families after the border wars, got better land that can support his family, whereas a "zseller" owns just his house and maybe a garden plot but has to work out to make ends meet? Is that close to correct?

I replied: I'll pull some discussion from archived newsletters on this Colonus vs. Zseller terminology.

NL 52B:

Period before 1848 (Kommassierung)
Tenant farmer: "agricola" (Latin), "paraszt", (Hungarian)
Non-farmer: "sollner" (German), "colonus" (Latin) "napszamosno" (Hungarian-day laborer)

Period after 1848
Farmer: "landwirt" (German)
Non-farmer: "sollner" (German), "colonus" (Latin) "napszamosno" (Hungarian-day laborer)

NL 54A:

"Zseller" is also Hungarian and is defined as a "cotter," a peasant or farm laborer who occupies a cottage and small holding of land in return for services. This person would work directly for the landowner on a purely "robot" basis. An English equivalent (also found in the US) is the person who gets the use of a house as well as pay on the farm of a yeoman or large estate in return for being a "hired man". Many also tilled garden plots for their own use.

Within the BB, we have consistently called people with their own houses but little land by the German term Söllner.

So, it looks like colonus and zseller are essentially equal terms. Both would be day-laborers or craftsmen rather than land-owning farmers. Of course, before 1848, only nobility could "own" land. Some peasants (the agricola) had heritable rights to use of and profit from land, but not outright ownership of it. Only after 1848 could they own land (i.e., be a landwirt).

Richard Potetz weighed in: I don't know much about the use of these headings, but maybe this will be useful. In the 1828 Hungarian census records for Neumarkt an der Raab, all heads of household were included under just one of three Latin headings:

· Coloni = farmers (renting the land till 1848)
· Inquilini = tenants
· Subinquilini = subtenants

I have attached a photo of the last page [Ed: not shown here] for Neumarkt a/d Raab because that gives the final tally for the village. There were 96 Coloni, 3 Inquilini, and 2 Subinquilini.

I replied: This is interesting, Richard. Given the numbers from Neumarkt, it would be hard to argue that all these "Coloni" were craftsmen or day laborers... the tenant-farmer relationship was simply too well established in 1828 to expect that almost all in the village were day-laborers on someone else's property.

I pulled the definition/explanation below from the web:

Colonatus (Late Latin, from Latin colonus, “farmer”), a special form of production relationship between a large land-owner and the immediate producer, the colonus; the system was widely employed in the Roman Empire.

Under the colonatus system, landed property was divided into a multitude of parcels given out for rent to coloni, who were either free or dependent on the landowner. The spread of the system was furthered by the limited production possibilities of the slaveholding system. The colonatus system presupposed a certain economic independence of the immediate producer, the colonus: he ran his own farm and therefore had an interest in the growth of the productivity of labor and in the careful and rational use of tools and the means of production.

Two periods may be traced in the history of the colonatus. Initially, from the second century B.C. to the first century A.D., the colonus was an immediate producer who was juridically free and economically independent of the landowner and could use not only the labor of members of his own family in working his rented parcel but also the labor of slaves belonging to him. Thus, he was a kind of petty slaveholder. Because he was compelled to pay his rent in money, he was at the same time directly tied to the market. The low productivity of slave labor and the curtailment of the sources of additional slaves ruined a great many petty and middle slaveholding farmers.

In the second period, which began in the second century A.D., the relations between the landowner and the colonus profoundly changed: the colonus was no longer a petty farmer and slaveholder but a direct producer lacking economic independence; the landowner became his patron and protector. The colonus was virtually bound to the estate, losing his direct links with the market. Rent was now defined as a share of the harvest (from one-fourth to one-third). The colonus also performed several nonmonetary obligations, including several days of plowing, weeding, and harvesting.

During the fourth and fifth centuries, colonatus relations began to be regulated by Roman legislation, and their introduction in the empire became compulsory. Coloni were juridically bound to the land. According to the law of Emperor Anastasius (ruled 491–518), every farmer who worked on an estate for 30 years became a colonus regardless of his social or economic status. The colonus lost a number of the rights of a freeman: his rights to marry, to inherit, and to move freely were restricted, and he fell under the administrative jurisdiction of the landowner. Groups of the dependent rural population differing by origin, juridical status, and social position were merged in the fourth and fifth centuries into one estate having common rights and obligations; this estate occupied a position between slaves and freemen and anticipated the medieval serfs. The establishment of colonatus relations occurred not in the form of a rural idyll, as the French historian Fustel de Coulanges supposes, but in the circumstances of the bitter class struggle that engendered the social movements of the third to fifth centuries. []

My only concern about the above is the time period wherein the term is defined (clearly, the tenant-farmer relationship in Burgenland was identical to the second-period form above). Our period of interest is nearly 1000 years later. Did the word's definition still hold or had the word changed meaning in the 1600 to mid-1800 period?

I'm inclined to think the definition did hold and what was presented in NL 52B was a misinterpretation. Fritz, you were part of that 52B discussion... any comments?

Matt replied: So, there must be a reason for the different terms, other than Latin vs. Hungarian. Felix Game ( has four divisions, in which zseller = either inquilini or subinquilini, but otherwise there are distinct differences between the rest, based on some rather complex fractional formulas for service to the estate. And there's always that open-ended "what did they own and when?" question. Game states:

Not counting the various social levels which existed outside the village, the population inside the village was made up almost entirely of people who made their living off the land. Yet not all were called 'farmer' because that word was reserved for a specific social level. Only those were called 'farmer' (Latin: colunus) who had taken possession of a type of land on which grain had to be grown, and which was subject to 1/9 or 1/10 tithe (Hungarian: úrbéri telek; Latin: constitutivum urbariale, agri sessionales). These 'farmers' in turn formed a hierarchy according to the amount of land they had taken in terms of "sessions" (session is derived from sessio; in Hungarian: hely). Thus there were 'whole farmers', 'half farmers', and 'quarter farmers'. By definition then, every other inhabitant of the village was not colunus but inquilinus (Hungarian: zsellér).

My interest in this seemingly hair-splitting issue is that one of my ancestors was listed as a colonus, the other a zseller. This colonus was able to support his daughter, her husband (a zseller/subinquilini carpenter) and their family, and eventually give them money to emigrate. In family lore, he was considered "wealthy". This was, of course, in 1888, after the land reforms , but he was listed as a colonus in the church record of 1845.

Fritz Königshofer jumped in: My apologies for not entering this discussion earlier, but with Thanksgiving approaching, time is pressing. I do agree that colonus corresponds to farmer/Bauer, while zsellér corresponds to inquilinus/Söllner. The latter were almost land-less and considered "poor people" as compared to farmers. They made a living by providing seasonal labor to farmers, and/or as cobblers or potters, etc.

So it appears that we are in agreement that the Newsletter 52 definitions were in error. Coloni were land-holding farmers of substantially higher social and economic status than Zsellérs. Zsellérs were seasonal (day) laborers and craftsmen.


Friends, I am pleased to add these forgotten first arrivals of Burgenlanders and spouses to the South Bend, Indiana area. This batch of immigrants were first arrivals, all arriving here between 1881 and 1895. Steven Wartha was the first to arrive in 1881. Brothers Lawrence and Michael Wartha were Steven's nephews. John S Tschida and his wife were next to arrive along with their sons John P and Frank J as well as daughter Johanna, who married Michael Wartha. Anthony and John J Tschida were brothers, but I have not yet tied them into the John S family. John T Tschida arrived and met his wife Catherine here. He was again of another Tschida clan. At the same time, we have George Tschida and wife arriving along with their children Juliana, Steven M and Elizabeth (already entered as Mrs. Balthasar Bleich). As you can see, I have focused on the Tschida's but there were other families still to be researched.

One final point: please note that the Cedar Grove cemetery is located on the University of Notre Dame campus, which is not part of the city of South Bend. They are a separate entity recognized by the state with their own police, post office, fire dept. and water dept. The address is Cedar Grove Cemetery, Notre Dame, IN 46556; others should be corrected. Cedar Grove was the only Catholic Cemetery in the area until around 1912, when many other cemeteries were founded: St. Joseph's for the Polish, Sacred Heart for the Hungarians and later Highland, which was the choice of many Burgenlanders who, no doubt, relished their unique identity, especially after 1920.

Gary Gabrich

Name Hometown Birth Death Cemetery Location
Wartha, Steven; Pamhagen; 1860; 1918; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Wartha, Gizella (Kertesz); Hegyko, Sop. M; 1867; 1924; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Wartha, Lawrence; Pamhagen; 1871; 1955 ;Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Wartha, Johanna (Tschida); Pamhagen; 1873; 1901; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Wartha, Mary (Horvath); Pali, Sop. M; 1885; 1967; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Wartha, Michael; Pamhagen; 1877; 1950; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Wartha, Johanna (Tschida); Pamhagen; 1875; 1968; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Tschida, John S; Pamhagen; 1843; 1926; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Tschida, Elizabeth (Schwarzbauer); Wallern; 1849; 1932; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Tschida, John P; Pamhagen; 1881; 1954; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Tschida, Anna (Luttman[sberger]); Pamhagen; 1881; 1929; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Tschida, Frank J; Pamhagen; 1883; 1955; Riverview; South Bend, IN
  Tschida, Moudelle (Brodbeck); -; -; -; Riverview; South Bend, IN

Tschida, Anthony; Pamhagen; 1871; 191;1 Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Tschida, Mary (Eble); -; 1878; 1958; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Tschida, John J; Pamhagen; 1868; 1939; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Tschida, Anna (Engle); -; 1875; 1944; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Tschida, John T; Pamhagen; 1869; 1920; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Tschida, Catherine (Effenberger); Pamhagen; 1869; -; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Tschida, George; Pamhagen; 1854; 1933; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN
  Tschida, Julianna (Strantz); Pamhagen; 1857; 1933; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame, IN

Griman, Martin; Pamhagen; -; 1915; Cedar Grave; Notre Dame, IN
  Griman, Julianna (Tschida); Pamhagen; 1884; 1943; Cedar Grove; Notre Dame' IN

Tschida, Steven M; Pamhagen; 1886; 1864; Highland; South Bend, IN
  Tschida, Katherina (Engle); -; -; 1949; Highland; South Bend, IN

Corrections/ Additions
Ernest Dragon (formerly Dragonits); Deutschkreutz; 1888; 1967; Sacred Heart; South Bend, IN
  Agnes Dragon (Prikoszovits); K. Minihof; 1887; 1936; Sacred Heart; South Bend, IN


Do you want to know with whom you have common ancestors and get a rough idea of how far back they lived? Or, are you interested in finding out as much as possible about the origins of the various ethnic groups that settled in Burgenland? This and other types of information are now available through genetic DNA testing. While it is not a substitute for a good old-fashioned review of historical documents and records, DNA testing provides a fine complement to the more traditional genealogy-related investigative techniques.

A DNA project solely for Burgenländers was launched recently. Family Tree DNA is hosting it and Frank Paukowits (Burgenland Bunch member), assisted by two researchers from Hungary, is coordinating it. Family Tree DNA has a database of close to 320,000 records that are useful for comparison purposes. It is the largest organization of its kind specializing in genetic research for genealogy purposes.

If you have interest in knowing more about your ancient family roots, get in touch with Frank Paukowits at He can provide details on what is involved.


Member Anne Reed Shannon recently submitted an Information Change Form that snowballed into the telling of much of a life story. She provided the following "new text" for her member entry:

John Chandl (Kosma Csandl) was born in Hagensdorf in 1899. He came to New York City at age 23. He married Theresa (Theresia) Pail born in 1902 also in Hagensdorf. She first came to Northampton, PA at age 21. They settled in Derby, CT and had two daughters, Margaret and Anna Chandl.

I replied: Hi Anne, Ellis Island shows a Korma Csandl, age 24, son of Karl from Hagensdorf, arriving Feb 24, 1923 on the SS Paris from LeHarve. Is this your guy? Korma Csandl

The SSDI [Social Security Death Index] shows:

First Name: Kosma
Last Name: Csandl
Birth Date: 21 March 1899
Social Security Number: 040-07-7572
Place of Issuance: Connecticut
Last Residence: Orange, New Haven, Connecticut
Zip Code of Last Residence: 06477
Death Date : August 1985
Estimated Age at Death: 86

This matched the new spelling you give and the location information.

For Theresia, Ellis Island shows a Theresia Pail, age 21, from Hagendorf, Austria (note no s in Hagendorf, but the mailing address for her father was Strem, so this appears to be a misspelling of Hagensdorf) arriving June 20, 1923 on the SS Ohio going to join her uncle Alois Szeier in Northampton, PA. Interestingly, her father is listed as Paul Kozmas. Theresia Pail

Anne replied: Yes. They are my grandparents. Margaret Chandl Reed (1928-2010) is my mother. Thank you so much.

BB Contributing Editor, Margaret Kaiser, was drawn in, writing: Hi Anne, Kosma Csandl was naturalized 28 Sep 1928 at which time his address was 131 Park Avenue, Derby, CT, US District Court in New Haven, certificate #9028. He filed his Declaration of Intention with the NY Supreme Court on 29 February 1924. Declaration #705, Page 276.

The BH&R (Burgenlanders Honored and Remembered) website includes several Csandls, including two from Hagensdorf (Charles and Ignatz). It would be very nice if you submitted your Csandl immigrant ancestors for inclusion. See You may submit the information to me if you have the names (including maiden if known), birth year, death year, hometown, cemetery name and location.

Have you researched the Hagensdorf records? Any questions, please reply by email.

Anne replied again, saying: Hi Tom, I have in possession an affidavit regarding Anton Dunst dated January 4, 1923. Dunst was Kosma Csandl's uncle, who sponsored him to come to the United States. The document states that Dunst was a naturalized citizen on April 26, 1917 in the Supreme Court of New York #761756. His address is listed as 321 East 93rd Street, Manhattan, NY. He is listed as a brewery worker, along with his weekly salary and savings. The latter information was provided to ensure he could take care of Kosma Csandl once he arrived in the US.

I would like to share this information with anyone who may be researching Anton Dunst.

I replied: Hi Anne, The BB does not have a way of knowing which current (or future) members may have an interest in a particular person, nor do we have a mechanism for storing such info. Instead, I propose that I write a short newsletter article, discussing Kosma enough to introduce Anton, then reporting what you say below. Better yet, if you could scan the document, I could include it in the newsletter. What do you think of this approach?

By the way, I'm curious why I cannot find your Csandl/Chandl family in the 1930 census. I've drilled down to New Haven Co, CT, and looked at all the entries for first names Theresa, Theresia, John, and variations on Kosma and find nothing that looks like Csandl/Chandl. Likewise, I've looked at all the variations of Csandl/Czandl/Chandl that I could think of and struck out there too. You report that they moved to Derby in 1925 and the SSDI indicates Kosma died in the area, so I'm surprised they do not show up. Any thoughts on this?

Anne replied: Hi Tom, During the 1930s and 1940s, John and Theresa Chandl lived at 73 Cottage Street, Derby, CT. Theresa died in 1940 (uncertain about the exact date) and John remarried. In the 1950s and until his death, John Chandl and his second wife, Bernice Clark Chandl, lived on Taft Road in Orange, CT.

I do not know why the census does not show them. I think my grandfather worked at Sikorsky as a machinist at that time. Theresa never learned English or became a naturalized citizen. In 1940 (the same year I believed she died at St. Raphael's Hospital in New Haven), Theresa was registered and fingerprinted as a foreign alien with the United States Department of Justice, Immigration Service and Naturalization Service #3638949. I also have her alien registration card in my possession. I speculate that the census taker came when my grandfather was at work, and perhaps Theresa did not answer the door? Who knows?

Yes, I am happy to scan the affidavit for you for a possible article in the newsletter. (I just need to press my teenage son to help me do it. It is a legal-sized document so it has to be scanned in two parts.)

Thank you for all your good information.

I replied: Hi Anne, If you send the affidavit in two parts (scans), I can reassemble it here (assuming you don't twist, warp or misalign the two parts too much). Just overlap the parts enough so that I can see where to merge it together. Also, have your son use enough resolution so that it stays readable. I can always make the resolution lower, but I can't increase what's not there.

When it comes, I'll format up a newsletter article, upload it and send the address for your review. I'm targeting the end-of-February or -March newsletter for this (as January is full up and February is getting there).

Hopefully, we will do something useful for a Dunst researcher! (And maybe we'll stumble across someone interested in the Csandl or Pail lines.)

Anne replied (with the scans attached): Here is the affidavit for the newsletter. I will look forward to hearing from you.

[Ed Note: Inserted here is a thumbnail of the rather large, legal-size affidavit. If you click on it, it will load a full resolution image of the document.]

So, if we put all this information together, we learn that...
John Chandl, son of Karl Csandl, was born Korma / Kazmaz / Kosma Csandl, on 21 March 1899, likely in Hagensdorf, Austria-Hungary. By 1923, he was "living in distressed circumstances and destitute, without means of earning a livelihood."

His uncle, Anton Dunst, sponsored his emigration to the United States, swearing on 4 January 1923 that he "states and agrees to save harmless the United States, each State, Territory, District, County and Municipality against the said immigrant ever becoming a public charge."

John, at age 24 and under name Korma Csandl, arrived at Ellis Island on 24 February 1923 on the SS Paris from LeHarve to start his new life in the United States.

His wife to be, Theresia Pail, daughter of Paul Kozmas from Hagensdorf, arrived at Ellis Island four months later (June 20, 1923) on the SS Ohio, age 21, going to join her uncle Alois Szeier in Northampton, PA.

How she and John crossed paths is not clear (though it seems likely they knew each other in Hagensdorf) but they married and settled around 1925 in Derby, CT and had two daughters, Margaret and Anna. Margaret Chandl Reed (1928-2010) was mother to member Anne Reed Shannon.

John, as Kosma Csandl, was naturalized 28 Sep 1928, at which time his address was 131 Park Avenue, Derby, CT, (US District Court in New Haven, certificate #9028). He filed his Declaration of Intention with the NY Supreme Court on 29 February 1924 (Declaration #705, Page 276). He also used name Kosma Csandl on his Social Security record.

Around 1930, he worked at Sikorsky as a machinist and, during the 1930s and 1940s, John and Theresa Chandl lived at 73 Cottage Street, Derby, CT. Theresa never learned English or became a naturalized citizen. In 1940, Theresa was registered and fingerprinted as a foreign alien with the United States Department of Justice, Immigration Service and Naturalization Service, #3638949. Theresa died later in 1940 at St. Raphael's Hospital in New Haven, CT. John remarried and in the 1950s and until his death, John Chandl and his second wife, Bernice Clark Chandl, lived on Taft Road in Orange, CT.

Per the Connecticut death record index (state file #17642), John K. Chandl, born Austria on 21 March 1899, married with spouse named Berni, occcupation machinist retired from Better Packages, and residence 823 Taft Rd, Orange, CT, died 9 Aug 1985, at age 86 in New Haven, CT.


Is this not the feel-good "American dream" story? A destitute young man is helped by a family member to emigrate to the United States. He quickly marries a young lady from his homeland, becomes a citizen, and makes a life for her and their family, finding employment, shelter and sustenance in this great country! I'm impressed.


But we cannot forget the man who helped make it possible, Anton Dunst. I spent a little time looking at census records and Margaret Kaiser contributed more information; together we came up with the following:

1905 Census, Manhattan, NY, AD-30,ED-22, p74B (88th Street)
Name            Relation Age Yr/US Birth    Occup.
Anton Dunst       head    32   1   Hungaria Brewer
Mary              wife    28   1   Hungaria
Frank             son     10   1   Hungaria
Gustav Briedefeld boarder 24   2   Germany  Brewer

1910 Census, Manhattan, NY, ED-1018, p74B (Ave A)
Name    Relation   Age Yr/M Ch L Emm. Birth          Occup.
Anton Dunst head    37  10       1903 Hun. German    Brewer Brewery
Mary        wife    34  10   1 1 1904 Hun. Hungarian
Joseph Toth boarder 39  14   3 3 1905 Hun. German    Bottler Brewery
Joseph Szaz boarder 21           1908 Hun. Hungarian Bottler Brewery

1920 Census, Manhattan, NY, ED-1168, p47B (East 93rd St)
Name     Relation Age  Emm/Nat  Birth   Occup.
Anton Dunst head   47 1904/1914 Germany Laborer Brewery
Mary        wife   44 1904      Germany
Steve       nephew 23 1914      Germany Bottling business
John        nephew 25 1913      Germany Laborer Seltzer Co.

1930 Census, Manhattan, NY, (400 East 91st Street)
Name     Relation Age  Emm   Birth    Occupation      Age Married
Dunst head   57  1905  Hungary  driver, brewery  26
Erma        wife   53  1906  Hungary                   23

NYC Death Certificates
#11442: Anton Dunst, age 63, died Dec 12, 1936, Bronx
# 4778:  Mary Dunst, age 68, died Feb 25, 1948, Manhattan

I also found an Ellis Island emigration record, dated 24 February 1905, for Agostan (August) Dunst, age 35, from Kertes, joining brother Anton Dunst, 343 E 65th St, NY, NY. (August Dunst is also in the 1910 Census of Northampton, PA.) The street address difference between this record and the 1905 census for Anton is a little disconcerting, but there was only one Anton Dunst in NYC in the 1905, 1910 and 1920 censuses, so I think this is our guy. If so, Kertes (now Baumgarten in the Mattersburg district) may be Anton's birthplace. The Dunst name, however, seems more frequent in the Güssing and Oberwart districts.

At this point, as Anne Reed Shannon requested, we will share this information with anyone who may be researching Anton Dunst. May your efforts be successful!


Editor: This is part of our occasional series designed to recycle interesting articles from the BB Newsletters of 10 years ago.

This month we add to the confusion first reported 10 years ago concerning Eisenberg and Eisenburg... I'll let you read it below...

February 28, 2001


Burgenland Province Austria Queries

A new message, "New info," was posted by Susan on Wed, 17 Jan 2001. It is a response to "Strem, Austria and Eisenberg, Hungary," posted by Susan on Fri, 29 Dec 2000; Surname: MONDSCHEIN, GROLLER.

The message reads as follows: "Since posting my last query, I found from the Aug 13, 1901 Zeeland passenger list on microfilm that Michael "Mike" and Johanna "Jennie" Gröller were from Strém, Hungary. They were married before emigrating. On the Naturalization paper, it stated they were both born in Eisenberg, Hungary. I am going to back-track by ordering the marriages from Strem, Austria on microfilm in the civil records and hope to find something new."

Another message, "Eisenberg," was posted by Susan Chimento on Sun, 21 Jan 2001. It is a response to "New info," posted by Susan on Wed, 17 Jan 2001; Surname: Graf, Fassel.

The message reads as follows: "It was with great interest that I read the queries and responses about Eisenberg or Eisenburg. My grandfather, Leonard Graf, emigrated from Austria in 1910. I never heard of Eisenberg until I sent away for his naturalization papers. On the petition for naturalization, with the information typed, it stated he was from Litzelsdorf, Eisenberg, Hungary. The declaration of intent, which is a poor copy, has the information written (in script). There it appears as though Eisenburg is spelled with a u. Years ago, I had asked my Uncle Joe where he was from in Austria and he said Eisenberg. Even though I've collected much information about my family, these are the only times I've run across the place name Eisenberg."

A new message, "Litzelsdorf," was posted by Fritz Königshofer on Sun, 21 Jan 2001. It is a response to "Eisenberg," posted by Susan Chimento on Sun, 21 Jan 2001.

The message reads as follows: "Susan: While there is a little hamlet Eisenberg [an der Pinka] just to the east of Litzelsdorf, I believe that, from the context you are citing, it is evident that the meaning there is Eisenburg, which was the German name of the county [Hungarian: Vas]. "Litzelsdorf, Eisenburg, Hungary" would have been the normal, ascending sequence of defining the village of your grandfather."

(Ed. [Gerry] Note: Village of Eisenberg [an der Pinka] was called Schauka and Cséke [Csejke] in Hungarian, it was in the district of Szombathely, Hungary and is now in the district of Oberwart as the Gemeinde (community) of Deutsch-Eisenberg, which includes the villages of Edlitz im Bgld., Eisenberg an der Pinka, Höll and St. Kathrein im Bgld. I agree with Fritz that, when you see Eisenburg shown on documents, they probably mean Komitat (county) Eisenburg (Hungarian Vas Megye) and not the village. I have seen Eisenburg and Eisenberg shown as the place of origin in the US Census for 1910-1920, Lehigh-Northampton Counties, PA. Village of Eisenberg only had 473 inhabitants in 1873. Be aware of this when considering an Eisenberg place of origin.)

Ed. note (Tom, 2011): It is worthwhile to note that there was also a village called Vasvár (German name Eisenburg) in the district of Vasvári in Vas Megye, Hungary. It was some 25 km S-SE of Szombathely (and about 21 km from the nearest point in Burgenland); whereas, Cséke (Eisenberg an der Pinka) was about 15 km W-SW of Szombathely. We list Vasvár as a village on our Villages pages and it has 10 researchers who have named it as an emigrant village. However, it is not clear to me whether these researchers meant the village (Vasvár) or the county (Vas) when they listed Eisenburg! And I'm not sure why we (the BB) included it, as the village is a substantial distance from Burgenland!

In addition, I have a number of c.1900 maps that show an Eisenberg (Hungarian: Vashegy) about 1 km north of Cséke (Csejke). Of course, both Eisenberg and Vashegy translate to "iron mountain," so this may be referring to a geographic feature rather than a village... and there is what appears to be an elevation and mountain-like symbol D just below the text "Eisenbg (Vashegy)" ...but there are also little black dots (indicating houses) in the area, so it is not absolutely clear from the map!

Regardless, it remains clear that those interested in Eisenberg / Eisenburg must use caution and some supporting evidence before choosing one over the other, though as a reference to a county, Eisenburg includes the villages of Eisenburg (Vasvár) and Eisenberg (Cséke).


(courtesy of Bob Strauch)

Saturday, March 5, 2011: Fasching. Evergreen Heimatbund/Country Club, Fleetwood, PA. Music by the Josef Kroboth Orchestra. Info:

Sunday, March 6, 2011: 34th Schlachtfest/Pig Roast. Holy Family Club, Nazareth, PA. Music by the J&J Orchestra. Info:

Saturday, March 12, 2011: St. Patrick's Dance. Coplay Sängerbund, Coplay, PA. Music by the Josef Kroboth Orchestra.

Friday, March 25, 2011: Spring German Show. Evergreen Heimatbund/Country Club, Fleetwood, PA. Info:

Saturday, March 26, 2011: 58th Bockbierfest. Reading Liederkranz, Reading, PA. Music by the Joe Weber Orchestra. Info:


Saturday, March 19, 7:30 - 11:30 pm: Bockbier Fest. Lancaster Liederkranz, 722 S. Chiques Rd, Manheim, PA. $8 ($10 guest) at door or in advance at the bar. Music by Heidi und the Heimat Echo. Dinner Service: 5:30-8pm. It is not necessary to attend the dance to enjoy Dietrich's Dance Night Menu. Seating is available in the Barroom for those not attending the dance., 717-898-8451 (after 4pm M-F). Website

Additional 2011 Lancaster Liederkranz Dance Schedule:
April 16: Ein Abend in Wien.
Music by the Walt Groller Orchestra
April 30: Spring Concert & Dance. Music TBD
May 14: Maitanz. Music by Joe Kroboth

(courtesy of Margaret Kaiser)

Friday, March 4, 7 pm: Heimat Abend (Home Evening) with guitarist Peter Frey. Austrian Donau Club (, 545 Arch Street). $3. (Kitchen special: Wursts)

Sunday, March 13, 8 am - 12 noon: Sonntag Frühstuck (Sunday Breakfast). Austrian Donau Club.

Friday, March 18: Heurigan Abend ("A meeting where wine of the latest vintage is drunk") with Schachtelgebirger Musikanten (Box Mountain Musicians). Austrian Donau Club. $3. (Kitchen special: Sauerbraten).

Friday, March 25, 7 pm: Gemütlichkeit Abend (Congenial Evening) with violinist Nick Kwas. Austrian Donau Club. $ Free. (light fare)

Tuesdays at 7 pm: Men's and Women's Singing Societies meet. Austrian Donau Club.
Thursdays at 7 pm: Alpenland Tänzer (Alpine Country Dancers) meet. Austrian Donau Club.

(courtesy of Kay Weber)

Friday, March 18, 6 pm: Trivia Night. St. Louis Genealogical Society (event at Maryland Heights Community Centre, 2344 McKelvey Road). $15 (table of 8: $120). An evening of fun, excitement and fellowship, with cash prizes, silent auctions, 50/50 drawings, Mulligans and pre-trivia games. Soft drinks and snacks provided. Contact StLGS for more info and sign-up procedure: phone 314-647-8547 / email / website

12) BURGENLAND EMIGRANT OBITUARIES (courtesy of Bob Strauch)

Stella M. Beehrle

Stella M. Beehrle, 90, of Whitehall, passed away February 3, 2011, at Whitehall Manor. Born in Henndorf, Burgenland, Austria, she was a daughter of the late Michael and Mary (Stengl) Gumhold.

She was the wife of the late Herman J. Beehrle for 65 years until his death on September 25, 2005.

She was a member of Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Allentown. She was a presser for Penn State Mills for 30 years and then went to work for Climax Manufacturing where she retired.

Survivors: Son, Richard, husband of Mary, of Royal Palm Beach, FL; daughter, Patricia, wife of Charles Zimmerman, of Whitehall; brother, William, of Allentown; grandchildren, Charles, of Whitehall, and Donna and Carol, of Florida; great-grandchildren, London, Chloe, and Bradley all, of Florida.

Services: Mass of Christian Burial, 10 a.m. Tuesday, February 8, 2011 at Sacred Heart of Jesus Catholic Church, 336 N. 4th St., Allentown. Viewing: 8:30 to 9:30 a.m., Tuesday at Weber Funeral Home, 502 Ridge Ave., Allentown, PA. Interment in Cedar Hill Memorial Park. (

Contributions: In lieu of flowers, to the Alzheimer's Association, 399 Market St., #102, Philadelphia, PA 19106.

Published in Morning Call on February 5, 2011.


Mary Scheffler

Mary Scheffler, 100, of Northampton passed away peacefully surrounded by her loving family on Wednesday, February 9, at the Sacred Heart Senior Living, Northampton. She was the wife of the late Arthur B. Scheffler who passed away in 1981.

Mary was born May 24, 1910 in Northampton but raised in Moschendorf, Burgenland, Austria from six months of age and returned to Northampton at 12 years of age. She was the daughter of the late George and Mary (Groller) Reinisch.

Mary was a waitress and worked for Homemaker Services for many years. She was a member of Queenship of Mary Church in Northampton and a member of the Altar and Rosary Society. Mary was an inspiration and a blessing to everyone that knew her.

Survivors: Daughter, Ann M., wife of Robert Sinkovits, of Whitehall; sons, George Scheffler and his wife Carol, of Easton, James Scheffler, of Northampton, six grandchildren, eight great-grandchildren and one great- great-grandson. Mary was predeceased by her daughter, Lillian Borda Watson; brothers, Frank and John Reinisch; sisters, Estelle Reinisch, Pauline Bauer and one great-granddaughter.

Services: A Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated on Monday, February 14, at 10:30 a.m. in the Queenship of Mary Church, 1324 Newport Ave. Northampton. Family and friends may call Monday, 9 to 10 a.m. in the Reichel Funeral Home, 326 E. 21st St., Northampton.

Contributions: In lieu of flowers, memorials may be presented to the church c/o the funeral home.

Published in Morning Call on February 11, 2011


Ed. Note: BB Member Barbara Lang provided the following obituary about her mother. Although this section of the newsletter is entitled "Burgenland Emigrant Obituaries" and Barbara's mother was born in the US rather than Burgenland, I believe it is of sufficient ethnic interest to warrant publishing.

Barbara's cover note also provided additional arguments for doing so:

I know Hattie wasn't born in Burgenland, but her parents and five of her eight siblings were. My reason for placing this in the newsletter is that, if someone was researching their family, this might help. Hattie and her mother corresponded for at least 20 years with relatives from St. Mihály, before, during and after WW-II. I learned the need for aid from their relatives in America after WW-II was great; many families relied on financial help, as well as food packets and warm clothing, as did my grandmother's family. The letters stopped in the mid 40s. I've translated the typewritten ones (that's how I learned about the needs after the war) but the handwritten letters are beyond my abilities. I'm in the process of finding a translator at the university in our area. Who knows what else I'll find!

Hattie Barbara (nee Bilowith) Kuch

Hattie Barbara (nee Bilowith) Kuch passed away at Centre Crest Nursing Home in Bellefonte, PA, on Friday, October 29, 2010; she was 98 years old.

Hattie, whose original name was Hathwik, was born in Passaic, NJ, on August 7, 1912, the 8th child to Franz and Maria (nee Ruisz-Hanzl) Bilowith (Billovics). Her maternal grandmother was Barbara (nee Ruisz) Hanzl; her paternal grandparents were Emre and Barbara (nee Mikovics) Billovics. Franz (18661920) was from Steingraben and Maria (1874–1957) from Puszta Szent Mihály. Frank and Mary settled in Eisenburg in 1891; they emigrated to Northampton, PA, in 1901 and lived there until 1905. Their final move was to Clifton, NJ. Frank worked in the woolen mills and Mary became an active member of the Church of the Holy Trinity’s Burgenländer-American Benefit Society.

Hattie was predeceased by her husband John, who passed away in March 2003, and all her brothers and sisters, Frank (18931992), Joseph (18951974), John (18971995), Mary (18982002), Charles (19011993), Pauline (19081926), and Edward (19101998). The first five siblings were born in Eisenberg and emigrated between 1901 and 1910.

Hattie attended Church of the Holy Trinity school in Passaic, NJ, where she was an A student. She also enjoyed participating in their plays and singing in the church choir. She was the Valedictorian of her 8th grade class and furthered her education in Holy Trinity’s business school. Hattie was also artistic in natureone of her favorite creative activities was pencil drawingand much later in life she learned the art of oil painting. After graduating from the Holy Trinity business school in 1928, she became a bookkeeper for a mortgage company and helped support her family during the depression.

Hattie married John Kuch in 1941 and settled in Clifton, NJ, where their two children, John Brian and Barbara, were born. In 1947, Rochelle Park, NJ, became their new home town. Hattie became a Cub Scout den mother for several years in the early 1950s and returned to work in 1958 as a sales woman for Bamberger’s in Paramus, NJ. During those 19 years, she and John traveled abroad extensively with the local AARP group and memories of those trips delighted her for many years.

After John retired from his window cleaning business in 1985, she and John resettled in Tuckerton, NJ, where Hattie, at the age of 75, enrolled in oil painting classes, in which she excelled, and she continued to paint until her mid 90s. Her works now grace the walls of the homes of her children and grandchildren.

They moved to Bellefonte in 1999, when John’s health declined, to be near their daughter. Hattie’s older sister Mary (Kinsey) also lived with John and Hattie for over 30 years; she passed away in Bellefonte on May, 2002 at the age of 103. Hattie, Mary, and John were laid to rest in St. John The Evangelist Cemetery in Bellefonte, PA.

Hattie is survived by her son and daughter-in-law John and Kathleen (Beilin) Kuch, her daughter and son-in-law Barbara and Paul Lang, grandchildren John and Mary (Garnett) Kuch, Katie (Kuch) Owens, Beth (Kuch) and Ryan Edwards, James Kuch, Eric Lang, Ed and Colleen (Walsh) Lang, and 4 great grandchildren, Jacqueline Lang, Sydney Owens, Jack and Alex Kuch.

Hattie will always be remembered for her fun loving, perky, mischievous spirit, the love given to her family, and her paintings and singing. She’s now in heaven’s choir, singing with the angels and painting the skies.

Auf Wiedersehen, Mama.


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