Translated from the German by Permission of the Author
 



The History of Neuberg im Burgenland

Zur Geschichte von Neuberg im Burgenland
Ranija Povijest Nove Gore

by Dr. Robert Hajszan


(Literas-Universitätsverlag, 1989)
 


BB Editor's Foreword: The main text of the book is written in German but the published volume also includes a Croatian translation (by Ivan Karall, theologian, Großwarasdorf). After the book came to our attention via BB member Pauline Greenlick, we contacted the author asking permission to publish an English translation on our website. Dr. Hajszan kindly gave his permission. What follows is our translated version of the German text.

Although references were included as footnotes at the bottom of the page in the original book, all references are presented here as endnotes and are identified by square brackets, for example: [1]. Further, only those figures in the original book that are deemed particularly helpful to the discussion are included full size in this presentation. The others are identified by title and a small thumbnail image (they all are images of old documents referenced by Dr. Hajszan). In addition, due to the format differences, the original page breaks and page numbers are not maintained or included in this translation. Finally, a number of German and Latin terms are maintained in this translated text. Where that is done, the term is italicized and an interpretation is given in bracketed italicized text, [such as this], after the initial use of such a term.
 

Table of Contents:

A. Foreword
B. RUD - A Pre-Croatian Settlement
C. NOWAGHORA - A Croatian Establishment
D. Studies on the Question of the Origin of the Neuberger Subjects
    I. Written Traditions
       1. Area of Origin for Surnames from the Urbare of the Resettlement
       2. The Etymology of Surnames
       3. Field Names and Names of Local Areas
   II. Ethnographic Notes on the Origin Question
  III. Theories about the Origin Centers
E. Croatian Translation (not included)
F. Endnotes
 

A: Foreword

For a long time, I have been dealing with the beginnings of my home town, Güttenbach, and neighboring villages. The villages neighboring Güttenbach include Neuberg, whose historical overview is dealt with in the present work.

Unfortunately, in this brief outline of the history of Neuberg, a comprehensive and complete presentation is not possible, as not all Urbare [land/tax registers] of the 16th and 17th Century were examined. The above sources are in the State Archives in Budapest (Országos Levétár), but all could not be evaluated in the limited time available. Only from two of them have I managed to obtain insight during my recent research in the Hungarian capital. These I have also analyzed in terms of the family names.

It is also very unfortunate that we still do not have access to the archive at the castle Güssing, because there are other Batthyány Grundherrschaft [manorial estate] Urbare. With the evaluation of this latter source, one could establish a continuity in population development of Neuberg through the liberation of the peasants and the abolition of serfdom.

Accordingly, the main aim of this study is to reconstruct the origin of the Neuberger Croats with the help of onomastics (the study of the history and origin of proper names), the spoken dialect and the ethnographic material.

Finally, I would express the hope that the present work may arouse the interest of some dedicated Neuberger to explore and interpret the unexamined sources, so that a similar treatise might exist for the history of Neuberg as was done for the market town of Güttenbach.

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B: RUD - A Pre-Croatian Settlement

Only after V. Zimänyi analyzed the Urbare of the 16th Century Güssing Herrschaft [Dominion/Domain], was it clear that the beginnings of Neuberg do not lie in the dark. The experts agree that there was a Croatian colony in the 16th Century at Neuberg. However, during the creation of the commemorative "Market Town Güttenbach" (Güttenbach, 1987) we encountered the toponym (geographical name of a locality) RUD, which is mentioned in the Hotter [the land assigned to a village] description of Olbendorf in 1333 [1].

In the aforementioned study of the historical development of Güttenbach, we located RUD between the villages of Bachselten, Olbendorf and Rauchwart in Burgenland [2]. Accordingly, this locality today must be between Güttenbach and Neuberg [3] and it could have been a precursor settlement of the said communities.

For the name RUD, it will be necessary to connect to the Slavic word ruda (ore), which ties in with iron fragments and metal waste found in both the Güttenbacher and the Neuberger Hotter, to corroborate our assumption.
 
Figure 1: Hotter description of Olbendorf from the year 1333; mention of RUD.

However, since the Burgenland Croats were not in our area around the year 1333 (= the year of the Hotter description of Olbendorf), it may be that RUD is only a toponym (= place name), which  has come to us as a relic from the time of the Slavic land acquisition at the beginning of the Middle Ages [4].

Figure 2: Excerpt from the Hotter description of Olbendorf; twofold mention of RUD: in the 5th and 7th lines.  


Figure 3: Sketch for Hotter description of Olbendorf from the year 1333

Return to Table of Contents
 


C: NOWAGHORA - A Croatian Establishment

The first mention of our town is as NOWAGHORA and dates from the time of the Croatian settlement of our area. The source for this name is the Güssinger Grundherrschaft Urbar from 1576 [5], from which Neuberg was recognized as a Croatian settlement that had not been previously mentioned elsewhere [6] (see Figure 4).

The settlement of the Croats at the Grundherrschaft Güssing goes back to Franz Batthyány, who transplanted his subjects to the former West Hungary from his southern possessions in Croatia and Slavonia to save his farm workforce from the attacking Turks. Since the area was deserted anyway because of the Ottoman raids (Güns 1532), an agricultural crisis and infectious diseases such as the plague, the Croatian colonists found enough room for new settlements and new start-ups. They made much of the inhospitable ground fruitful by clearing and cultivating the land.

With Neuberg, the colonization must have been a result of a plan by the Grundherrschaft operation, in contrast to around St. Nicholas, where refugees, who had come on their own initiative, had asked for a land grant.

V. Zimänyi, the first to analyze the Herrschaft Güssing Urbare of the 16th and 17th century, confirmed the establishment of Neuberg by Croatian colonists and supplies 67 tenant-farmers names for the year 1576 [7]. According to his research, the village was the second largest in population in the 16th century after Punitz. A reexamination, however, has shown that there were more than 70 subjects [8].

Figure 4: Excerpt from the deed of gift of the King Sigismund to Peter Cseh de Leva, no mention of Nowaghora, but probably of Vyfalu (Güttenbach), Kemenfalwa (Gamischdorf), Ewr (Rauchwart), etc.  

The following are the heads of household of NOWAGHORA cited in 1576 and 1618; their family and given names are compared:

1576 about 1618
 1 ADORYANAYCH Imre  1 ADRIORYCH Petar
 2 AMYCYTH Luka  2 BALASKOVICH Mihaly (juvenile)
 3 BAMOKOWYCH Gergur  3 BLASKOVICH Mattha
 4 BARSCHYANACH Petter  4 BLASKOVICH Petar
 5 BARSCHYANACKY Tamas (Mayor)  5 BLASKOVICH Ztipan
 6 BARSCHYANACKY Gaspar   BLASKOVICH Lörnicz [P]
 7 BAYKACH Mykola  6 BLASKOVICH Iwan
  BERCKOWYTH Petter [P]  7 BLASKOVICH Thamas
 8 BER AKOWITTY Martin      
 9 BLASKOWYCH Jacab      
10 BLASKOWYCH Marco      
11 BLASKOWYCH Jansa      
12 BLASKOWYCH ?      
13 BOWETYCH Mathe  8 BOHUETICH Gergur/Gregur
14 BOWETYCH Marthyn  9 BOHUETICH Mikula
15 BOWETYCH Jurco 10 BOHUETICH Mihaly
16 BRASYTH Synko 11 BRESKLUNACSKI Petar
17 BURYTH Gergur 12 BURYCH Gergur
18 BUZECKY Stepan 13 BUCZECZKI Ztanko
19 CHYACYTH Juray 14 CHARYCH Paval
  CHYERENCYTH Petter [P] 15 CZ ITKOVICH Ztanis a?
      16 CZ ITKOVICH Matthy
      17 DONKOVJCS Ztansa
      18 DONKOVJCS Marthin
20 DREWODELYTH Thoma 19 DREWODELYCH Iwan?
      20 DREWODELICH ?
        DROBYCH Barissa [P]
        DROBYCH Ivan [P]
      21 DROBYCS Petar
21 FABIANKOWYCH Peter 22 FRANCHICZ Jobbagin
      23 FRANCHICZ Jobbagin
      24 FRAY CHICH Martin
22 GERGYCH Luka 25 GERGYCH Thamas
      26 GERGYCH Matthe
      27 GERGYCS Petar
23 GOTTKOWYTH Mattyas 28 HERGOVICS Martin
  GOTTOWYTH Luka [P]   HORVAT Juraj [P]
24 HORWATTYCH Loryncz 29 HORVATICS Petar
      30 HORWATICS Ztipan
25 HRAMY Jurek 31 HRAßNOVICS Matthe
26 JANKOWYTH Mikola 32 IWANCHICZ Mihaly
27 JANKOWYTH Mikola 33 IWANCHYCZ Petar
28 KA ACYTH Petter 34 IWANCHYCZ Matthe
  KALSYTH * Myhal 35 IWAN KOVICH Matthe
29 KARLOWYTH Jandre 36 JANDRASSYCH Marthin
30 KARLOWYTH Luka   KARLOVICH Luka [P]
31 KERPYCH Juray 37 KERPYCH Marthon
32 KERPYCH Petter 38 KLOBUCHICZ Juricza
33 KLOBUCSICS ? 39 KOLICHICZ? Iwan
  KLUBYCYTH * Stepan 40 KOVACHYCZ Mikula
34 KLUBYCYTH Iwan 41 KRAYCHYCZ Iwan
35 KOLYNOWYTH Juray 42 KREPYCH Iwan (Mayor)
36 KOLYNOWYTH Marco 43 KREPYCH Marthon
37 KOLYCHYTH Juray 44 KARLOVJCH Mattha
38 KRISANICZ Mertin   KRISSANICS Martin [P]
39 KRYSANYCH Gergur 45 KRUHARYCH Gergur/Gregur
  KRUHARYTH * Gergur 46 KR HARYCH Ztanko
40 KULYNOWYTH ? 47 KRUHARYCH Mihaly
      48 KRUHARYCS Bartol
      49 KULINOVJCH Marko
      50 KULINOVJCH Iwan
      53 KULICHITTCZ Iwan
41 LYSICHYCH? Gergur 52 LONCHAR Miklosin
42 LYCKY Petter 53 LONCHAR Miklosin
43 LUKSYTH Jantol 54 LONCHARYCH Marko
44 MARGYTTYTH Tomycha 55 MARGITJCS Mihalyn
(=wife of Mihal)
45 MERCHYANYTH Petter 56 MERCHANJCS Iwan
46 MONDYTH Myhowy (=Mihovil)   MUNDICS Martin
  MOSARYTH Symon [P] 57 MU SICZ Jacap
  MYLYCH Gergur [P] 58 PILICZARYCH Ztipan?
  NAGOWYCH Juray [P] 59 PILICZARYCS Mikula
(3 whole Sessionen)
47 NOWOZEL Mathe 60 PILICZARYCH Jacab
48 PALCHJAK ? 61 PILICZARYCH Mikula
49 PYLYCHYARYTH Petter 62 PILICZARICH Iwan
50 PLYCHYARYTH Loryncz 63 PILICZARYCH Ztipan
51 POZNOWYTH? Mycola 64 PILICZARI Z Ztipana
52 PRATTAYTH Petter 65 PILICZARYCS Ztepan?
        RADAKOVICZ * Juray
      66 RADAKOVJCH Juraj
53 RADOSYTH Loryncz   RADOCHYCZ Simon
54 RADOCYTH Jurco 67 RADOZTICS ?
55 RADOZTYTH Gergur 68 RADOßTYCS Petar
  RADYCH Mycola [P] 69 RADOßTICS Mikula
  RODACHYTH Mycola [P] 70 RADOßTICS Marthin
56 ROZNOWYTH Marthyn      
57 ROZNOWYTH Myhal   ROßNOVJCS Mihaly
58 RUDASYTH Juray   RUDACHYCZ Juraj [P]
  SMYNYTH * Luka (free) 72 RUDCHYCZ Mikula
      73 RUDACHYCZ Iwan
      74 RU SICS ?
59 SMYNYTH Mycola 75 SUTKOVJCH Grgur/Gergur/Gregur
59 SMYNYTH Marthyn 76 S YRICZ Marttyn
61 SOSTHAR Mattyas   SZVITTCZKOVICH? Mattjas [P]
62 SUSNYTH Myhal 77 TARYCH? Matthe
63 TARYTH Iwan 78 TARYCH Marko
      79 TARYCH Luka
64 TOMASYTH Jandre 80 TOMA SYCH Gergur/Gregur
65 TOMASYTH Jandri 81 TONSYCS Mathe
66 TONSYTH Pawa (=Paval) 82 TONSYCS Jakops
        VGRINCHICZ Marthin [P]
      83 VGRINCHICZ Gergur
67 ZLADOWYTH Juray 84 VUCZKOVICH Paall
68 ZWETKOWYTH Gergur 85 WA SYCS Marko
69 ZWETKOWYTH Mykola   Z GARYCH Marthin
70 ZWONKOWYTH Mycola 86 ZUBAK Iwan
71 ZWONKOWYTH Pawle 87 ZVONKOVJCH Pall
        Sellerek (Söllner):  
        JANDREASEWYCS Juraj
        PILICZARYCS Juraj

[P] = Puszta = desolate residence
   * = crossed out in the Urbar

Figures 5 & 6: Nowaghora - first mention in the Güssinger Grundherrschaft Urbar of 1576; 2-page extract from the Urbar.  

This comparison shows that some householders still had their Session [a measure of allotted land] even after about 40 years, or had same-named descendants. They are:

BURYTH / BURYCH Gergur,
ROSNOWYTH / ROßNOVJCS Myhal(y),
ZWONKOWYTH / ZVONKOVJCH Pavle / Pall,
RUDASYTH / RUDACHYCZ Juray / Juraj,
KRISANICZ / KRISSANICS Martin and
KARLOWYTH / KARLOVICH Luka.

The Sessions of the latter three, however, are marked with the addition "Puszta", i.e., "desolate," already by the year 1618. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the village had more inhabitants after the Botchkay Uprising of 1605 than before.

Regarding the Libertini (free), there was only one in 1576 NOWAGHORA.

Remarkable also are the three whole Sessions of Mikula PILICSARYCS in 1618.

While no Söllner [day laborer or craftsman] are listed in the land register of the year 1576, there are two in 1618.

The mayors were Tamas BARSCHYANACKY (1576) and Ivan KREPYCH (approx. 1618).

Also worth mentioning is the fact that the family name RADAKOVITS appears here, as well as in Güttenbach, at the beginning of the 17th Century.

Comparing the first-owner names of NOWAGHORA in 1576 with today's Croatians in Neuberg / Nova Gora, one finds that only the following are represented: BE(R)LAKOVITS, BLASKOVITS, BUHETITS, CZVITKOVITS, GERGITS, KULOVITS, MERCSANITS, NOVOSEL and RADOSTICS.

[Ed. note: Of the surnames in the above paragraph, all but Be(r)lakovits and Novosel are present in the 1857 Neuberg Houselist on the BB website. Interestingly, Novosel was not in the 1618 list above. However, two surnames in the 1618 list but not in the 1576 list, Drobic and Radokowic, also appear in the 1857 houselist for Neuberg.]

Return to Table of Contents
 


D: Studies on the Question of the Origin of the Neuberger Subjects
 

     I: Written Traditions
 

        1: Area of Origin for Surnames from the Urbare of the Resettlement

From the written records for our work, the Urbare of the Herrschaft Güssing are of great importance, primarily those in which the names of heads of household were recorded.

The surnames of NOWAGHORA from 1576 and 1618, which were arranged alphabetically in Section C and then interpreted, we now want to investigate in terms of their present distribution in Croatia and Slavonia, in order to determine the putative regions of origin.

Of course, it can not be an exactly scientific endeavor, but rather a methodology which could, however, point us to geographically-limited lineage centers.

To make the comparison clear, it seems appropriate to reproduce in tabular form the names of the colonists and the location in Croatia where those names occur.

In the table below, the first count under the heading "Places in Croatia with the Greatest Number" expresses the number of bearers of the name, the second of the number of families. As an example (see first row below), in place Bokšić, there are 152 namesakes in 33 families of the surname Amidžić. For smaller villages, larger nearby cities are indicated in parentheses to make the smaller place easier to locate on a map. Thus "Bokšić (Orahovica)" indicates Bokšić is near Orahovica. Cities are printed in capitals when that family name appears very often in its surroundings (e.g., Janković - BELI MANASTIR, DRNIŠ, SLAVONSKI BROD, ZLATAR, JASTREBARSKO, ŽUPANJA).
 
First Mention
in Urbar
Current Spelling(s) in Croatia [10] Places in Croatia with Greatest Number [11]
AMYCYTH 1. Amidžić

2. Amiđić
3. Amižić
1. Bokšić (Orahovica) 152/33, Vrijeska Gornja (Daruvar) 25/6, Negoslavci (Vukovar) 19/4
2. Grubišno Polje 12/4, Virovitica 8/2
3. Žrnovica (Split) 143/30
BAYKACH  Baljkas Šibenik 181/34
BERCKOWYTH Brcković Donja Kupčina (Karlovac) 88/20, Brcković-Draga (Karlovac) 27/5
BLASKOWYTH Blašković Sveti Jakov (Ogulin) 85/21, Siča (Karlovac) 68/11, Kučinići (Ogulin) 64/11
BRASYTH Brašić Pirbić Gornji (Jastrebarsko) 42/9
GERGYCH
Grgić Vranjić (Split) 99/26, Bebrina (Slavonski Brod) 84/20, Otok (Vinkonvci) 64/13; (VINKOVCI)
GOTTKOWYTH
GOTTOWYTH
Gotović Brodski Varoš (Slavonski Brod) 2/1
HERCHOG 1. Herzog
2. Hercog
 
1. Osijek 2/2, Rijeka 1/1; Zagreb 10/4
2. Slavonski Brod 14/5, Brodski Varos (Slavonski Brod) 9/12, Retkovci (Vinkovci) 9/2, Budainka (Slavonski Brod) 9/2; (SLAVONSKI BROD)
HORWATTYCH Horvatić Ljubešćica (Varaždin) 132/32, Varaždin-Breg (Varaždin) 62/21, Prepuštovec (Zlatar) 82/15, Veleškovec (Zlatar) 52/10, Kupinec (Jastrebarsko) 74/21, Stankovo (Jastrebarsko) 46/8
JANKOWYTH Janković Jurčevec (Prelog) 114/26, Sveta Marija (Prelog) 51/12, Bobodol (Knin) 103/18, Strizirep (Sinj) 98/17, Mičevec (Velika Gorica) 93/24, Osijek 96/36; (BELI MANASTIR, DRNIŠ, SLAVONSKI BROD, ZLATAR, JASTREBARSKO, ŽUPANJA)
KARLOWYTH Karlović Ugljan (Zadar) 62/10, Rakov Potok (Samobor) 61/10, Čehi Gornji 41/10
KERPYCH Krpić Krusljevo Selo (Donja Stubica) 53/12
KLUBYCYTH
KLOBUCSICS
Klobučić Erpenja Mala (Pregrada) 12/3, Vid (Metković) 10/1, Cerna (Vinkovci) 5/1
KOL NOWYTH Kolonić Goričan (Prelog) 29/7, Sveti Juraj u Trnju (Prelog) 18/1
KOLYCHYTH Kolić Staza (Kostajnica) 104/19, Podumol (Ogulin) 95/12, Munjava Modruška (Ogulin) 44/10, Šajini (Pula) 74/14; (KARLOVAC, VRBOVEC, SLUNJ, ZADAR)
KRISANICZ
KRYSANYCH
Križanić Mraclin (Velika Gorica) 81/25, Lukavec Donji (Velika Gorica) 18/2, Zastinje (Karlovac) 43/8, Mekušje Gornje (Karlovac) 28/18, Karlovac 36/11, Poljanica (Donja Stubica) 37/8, Hrastovsko (Ludbreg) 35/6; (VARAŽDIN, LUDBREG)
KRUHARYTH 1. Kruhović
2. Kuharić
 
1. Šatornja (Glina) 28/7, Vodostaj (Karlovac) 19/4
2. Šipki (Zlatar) 61/13, Vojnovec (Zlatar) 38/6, Pribić Gornji (Jastrebarsko) 46/9, Borčec (Zagreb) 38/12
LYSICHYCH Lisičić Donje Selo (Split) 19/4; (SPLIT)
LUKSYTH Lukšić Mirce (Brač) 40/7, Sutivan (Brač) 76/20, Tupljak (Pazin) 41/8, Pazin 21/8, Trg (Karlovac) 38/8, Kaniža (Slavonski Brod) 38/10, Lukšić (Zagreb) 22/7; (PAZIN, KARLOVAC)
MARGYTTYTH 1. Margetić


2. Margitić
1. Sveti Križ (Zlatar) 158/24, Žirike (Slavonski Brod) 44/9, Bjelovar 54/17, Virovitica 49/13, Kobaš Slavonski (Slavonski Brod) 28/7, Gornji Miholjac (Podravska Slatina) 43/13, Štivica (Nova Gradiška) 44/10, Zabrđe (Vrbovec) 42/11
2. Kraljevica (Rijeka) 13/8, Krasica (Rijeka) 17/7, Rijeka 22/8
MYLYCH * Milić Bogatnik (Benkovac) 150/25, Javnica (Dvor) 132/19, Biskupija (Knin) 105/22, Blatuša (Vrginmost) 95/20, Zagvozd (Imotski) 110/20
MOSARYTH Možanić ? Čalinec (Varaždin) 52/12, Koretinec (Varaždin) 46/8
NOWOZEL Novosel Lug Poznanovečki (Zlatar) 138/26, Trnovec (Varaždin) 114/23, Siča (Karlovac) 97/17; (VARAŽDIN, KARLOVAC, DONJA STUBICA, VELIKA GORICA, LUDBREG, ZAGREB, SAMOBOR)
PALCHJAK Palčak Šljivoševci (Donji Miholjac) 5/1
POZNOWYTH 1. Poznanović
2. Poznić
 
1. Visuć (Titova Korenica) 55/10, Kutinica (Garešnica) 29/7, Lovska (Pakrac) 28/7
2. Gazije (Orakovica) 74/19, Jasenaš (Virovitica) 29/16, Gubavčevo Polje (Gračac) 24/3
RADOCYTH Radojčić Radojčići (Ogulin) 83/18, Međeđak (Ogulin) 33/6, Korduševci (Slavonski Brod) 39/5, Kusonje (Pakrac) 39/10, Bršadin (Vukovar) 32/7
RADOSYTH Radošić Tisovac (Nova Gradiška) 74/18, Brečići (Poreč) 24/3
RADOZTYTH Radotić Brinje 18/4, Grabovnica (Čazma) 17/7, Novigrad (Koprivnica) 16/4
RADYTH Radić Okrug Gornji (Split) 284/60, Radučić (Knin) 261/45, Dvornice (Šibenik) 242/49, Kotezi (Metković) 194/44, Vrsine (Split) 189/37, Klis (Split) 108/18, Župa Gornja (Imotski) 83/13, Perini (Poreč) 77/12, Borje (Križevci) 72/19, Bast (Makarska) 64/14, Borovita (Glina) 52/9; (SPLIT)
SUSNYTH 1. Susnić
2. Šusnić
3. Šušnić
1. Pula 6/1
2. Pula 4/1
3. Lozan (Virovitica) 30/9, Remete (Zagreb) 27/8; (VIROVITICA)
SOSTHAR 1. Šostar

2. Šoster
3. Šoštar

 
1. Ferdinandovac (Đurđevac) 13/4, Slavonska Požega 11/2, Klokočevac (Bjelovar) 10/2
2. Pojatno (Zagreb) 5/1, Slavonska Požega 3/1
3. Mačkovec (Ivanec) 63/16, Turkovčina (Zelina) 54/10, Ivanec 45/11, Gredice (Klanjec) 38/8, Trsteno (Klanjec) 25/4, Veliko Trgovišće (Klanjec) 26/6, Dubovec (Donja Stubica) 38/8
TARYTH Tarić Split 2/1, Kričke (Drniš) 1/0, Zagreb 4/2
TOMASYTH 1. Tomačić
2. Tomasick
3. Tomasić
4. Tomašić

 
1. Budrovci (Karlovac) 33/7
2. Rijeka 14/4
3. Rijeka 7/3
4. Smokvica (Korčula) 215/42, Tomašići (Karlovac) 135/27, Seoce (Vova Gradiška) 40/13, Mačkovac (Nova Gradiška) 39/7, Draga Baška (Krk) 51/22, Dijaneš (Vrbovec) 47/14, Kurilovac (Velika Gorica) 41/9, Varaždin 55/16
TONSYTH 1. Tončić

2. Tonsić
3. Tonšić
1. Tončić (Karlovac) 31/8, Sveta Katarina (Pazin) 22/3, Tončinići (Pazin) 23/4, Poli (Buzet) 25/5, Čabrnica (Buzet) 18/5, Kupeč-Dol (Jastrebarsko) 27/7
2. Rijeka 7/1
3. Selca (Brač) 29/7, Sutivan (Brač) 16/5, Barbat (Rab) 17/3
ZLADOWYTH 1. Sladović

2. Zlatović
1. Glinski Trtnik (Glina) 31/5, Dragotina (Glina) 15/3, Líčko Lešće (Otočac) 27/5, Veliko Vukovje (Garešnica) 22/7
2. Ljeskovac (Dvor) 44/7, Klasnić Gornji (Glina) 23/4, Šibenik 23/6
ZWETKOWYTH 1. Zvitcovich
2. Cvjetković


3. Cvetković



4. Cvitković




 
1. Pula 1/1
2. Gračac 104/24, Glogovo (Gračac) 45/9 Potkokirna (Gračac) 40/8, Suđurađ (Dubrovnik) 53/3, Topolo (Dubrovnik) 21/4, Đurinići (Dubrovnik) 8/1, Dubrovnik 18/6
3. Cvetković-Brdo (Velika Gorica) 109/22, Mala Mlaka (Velika Gorica) 33/5, Brođanci (Valpovo) 67/21, Ladimirevci (Valpovo) 17/6, Rude (Samobor) 75/14, Strmec (Samobor) 57/11, Vrapče Gornje (Zagreb) 84/21, Šemovci (Đurđevac) 79/18, Zamršje (Karlovac) 70/18, Ostrovo (Vinkovci) 60/16
4. Klenovica (Crikvenica) 100/18, Švica (Otočac) 89/16, Sinac (Otočac) 28/5, Prozor (Otočac) 40/10, Lipovlje (Otočac) 16/3, Otočac 48/14, Dubravci (Karlovac) 62/10, Jaškovo (Karlovac) 25/7, Novi Grad (Karlovac) 25/3, Karlovac 65/33, Potravlje (Sinj) 64/10, Satrić (Sinj) 49/8, Bitelić (Sinj) 13/2. Begovac (Slunj) 43/4, Donji Lađevac (Slunj) 30/6, Grabarska (Slunj) 26/4, Donje Novo Selo (Vinkovci) 53/15, Maovice (Drniš) 52/11
ZWONKOWYTH  Zvonković Jurovski Brod (Karlovac) 19/5, Bubnjarski Brod (Karlovac) 16/2, Jurovo (Karlovac) 13/3, Lukinići (Karlovac) 12/2, Brikovo (Karlovac) 5/1

   * = crossed out in the Urbar

An analysis of the last pages shows that, in the allocation of the surnames, the following cities are mentioned most frequently:

City No. City No. City No. City No.
Karlovac 24 Ogulin 6 Brač 4 D. Stubica 3
Slavonski Brod 11 Vinkovci 6 Dubrovnik 4 Drniš 3
Split 9 Zlatar 6 Gračac 4 Klanjec 3
Rijeka 7 Glina 5 Prelog 4 Knin 3
Velika Gorica 7 Otočac 5 Pula 4 Ludbreg 3
Varaždin 7 Pazin 5 Sinj 4 Samobor 3
    Nova Gradiška 5 Slunj 4


Figure 7: Distribution of Family Names from NOWAGHORA in the 16 Century
in Contemporary Croatia, Cities and Number of Mentions
(Click map for a larger image, and again for still larger)


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        2: The Etymology of Surnames

We will turn our attention first and foremost to those surnames of our immigrants, because the core issue is the lineage of the Burgenland Croats. These are mainly personal names that identify the nationality of the first carrier. P. Šimunović speaks of the family names' ethnonymic origin [12].

Some names could have emerged in Croatia (e.g.. Vogrinec, Ugrin, Vuger, Mađar for someone with Hungarian national affiliation; Nemec, Dojč, Nijemac / German nationality; Vlašić, Vlah, Vlahović / Wallachian descent; Talijan, Taljan, Talian / Italian; Turk, Turčin, Turčinović / Turk; Pemac / Bohemian; Čeh / Czech) or, on the other hand, have been assigned at the new home in the Grundherrschaft (Krobot, Horvát, Tót, Vláh) [13].

A large group of names have a form that indicates a geographical origin or point to a location. According to Šimunović, these are surnames with "ethnic" character [14]. They usually have endings of "-anin" and "-ski": Gračanin (Gračani - suburb of Zagreb), Senjanin (Senj), Moačanin (Mohacs), Kupresanin (Kupres in Bosnia), Slunjski (Slunj), Dvorski, Gajski [15].

Of course, other endings are possible: Bosnić, Bošnjaković, Kranjec (Kranj), Sremec (Srijem), Krbavac (Krbava), Prekupec (preko Kupe), Prekodravec (preko Drave), Posavac, Primorac (Primorje).

Of the many Croatian names of owners in NOWAGHORA, we can etymologically analyze and interpret only a few. Let us now turn to some who appear in the Urbar of the year 1576.

HERCHOG (= Hercog) means military leader. The name has its origin in the Magyar form, Herceg [16].

HORWATTYCH (= Horvatić) is another name with ethnonymic character, i.e., it expresses the national membership of the Croatian Ethnos [17]. The basic form "Horvat," has the suffix "-ić" appended, a characteristic for the formation of Croatian surnames.

Horvat was very common and was used in the northern parts of Croatia, Slovenia and the adjacent areas of Hungary, where it had been useful to give [the people] such a name. In the southern regions of Croatia, where the Croatian state building has its origin, where the first Croatian monuments arise, and where the "Croatian" name is confirmed very early and often, the name "Horvat" had no meaningful distinctive (distinguishing) function [18].

MARGETIĆ and MARGITIĆ (MARGYTTYTH) have their origin in given name Margeta, Margita or Margarita.

According to P. Šimunović, the first variant points to the Hungarian (Marget), the second to an Italian origin. In this sense, we encounter the surname Margetić in the northern parts of Croatia and, on the other hand, have Margitić in the Croatian coastal area (Croatian Primorje) and southern Istria [19].

MYLYCH is scratched out in the Urbar of the year 1576. This means that, for whatever reason, the residence of a Sessionalisten was given up, and another vassal took over the free Session. The name of the new head of household is illegible in the Urbar.

Whatever anthroponym concerns Mylych, we will need to consider the Croatian given name Milica [20], which translates as "loving" and "expensive."

According to Šimunović, Miličić is spread in northern Croatia (Zagorje), and in Slavonia  [21].

The surname NOVOSEL is very easy to interpret. It is a new settler [22] and the anthroponym has often been given to a new arrival. However, one does not know where and when the naming took place. On the one hand, it could be that the Croatian feudal farmer at immigration in the then Western Hungarian territories had this name already; on the other hand, the scribe may have missed him in his new home and would, in exceptional cases, grant a naming. However, surnames such as Crawath or Crabath, also Horvat and Tot(h) are more likely.

In ŠOŠTAR or ŠOSTAR we are dealing with a family name that goes back to the profession of shoemaker. Such a naming took place in the late Middle Ages, when crafts people specialized.

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        3: Field Names and Names of Local Areas

The Croatian field names in Neuberg im Burgenland are no longer officially recorded. Nevertheless, we were able to reconstruct the Croatian place names with the help of the local population and especially of Mr. Josef Kovacs. In addition, we even managed to nominate additional, almost forgotten toponyms (= geographical names of a locality) of our village and its Hotter.

It would be desirable that the Croatian names were reintroduced in the next remeasurement of the Hotter, for toponyms are reliable witnesses to an area and also to the material and spiritual culture which are included in the motivations and content of geographical designations [23].

Šimunović writes further, in the book already cited, that toponyms for a geographical object do not exist for the purposes of describing—but simply designate—and that their significance can only be understood in connection with the named locality [24].

He also highlight the difference between appellative (= nouns that denote similar goods) and proper names.

In our case, examples would be: siditi u grabi (sitting in the ditch); U graba imati grunat / grunta (in the hallway "U graba" a landowner); rodjak je došao (the relatives came); Na rodjaku raste (... grows); vrtal je velik (the garden is large); Pod vrtli je čuda (... is much).

N. Ivanović is particularly concerned with the Burgenland Croatian settlement and field names. In his manuscript "Hrvatska toponomastika seoskih naselja u Gradišću" (The Croatian Topomastik [locality name origin] of the settlements in Burgenland), he also tries to interpret to two field names and some toponyms in the local area of Neuberg im Burgenland.

Of the field designation U graba (in the trenches), he writes that it features a trough and that it also occurs as a toponym in the Croatian territory Međimurje (between Drava and Mura) [25].

Na brigu (on the mountain) was named after the hillside terrain at that time [26].

The local area Kod močil / Na močili, according to Ivanović, referred to the locality of the Hanfröste [27]. A toponym with the same name exists in Kopreinitz (Koprivnica) [28].

Gorica is a common place name both for Croats in Burgenland as well as in Croatia. It points to a small wood or grove. Our above-mentioned place-names researcher has found such local names in Karlovac, Jastrebarsko and Pregrada [29].

Ivanović connects the local area Brodac with the crossing of water. The researcher has also discovered the name as a toponym in Croatia (in the triangle formed by the rivers, Kupa - Sava - Una) in the cities Bihać and Ozalj [30].

The term Na pužarini, according to Ivanović, came into being in connection with snails [31]. According to the current local population, the naming could also result from fire (= požar), i.e., be after a fire occurs.

In the following, we show the complete field overview for Neuberg im Burgenland and attempt to use etymology explain the designations.

Field Wordings
 
Croatian German [32] Etymological Explanation
U graba 1. In den Gräben trough
Za grmaču 2. Hinter den Forste Grm (= Strauch, Busch, Buschholz, Dickicht / shrub, bush, bush wood, thicket)
Na grgina 3. Gerginische Äcker First name: Grgo, Gergur, Gregur; wife of Grgo
Na rodjaku 4. Verwandtschaftsäcker Rodjak (= Verwandter / relative)
Na seli 5. Auf dem Dorfe Selo (= Dorf / village); na seli - Čakavischer locative
Pod vrtli 6. Unter den Gärten Vrtal (= Gärten / garden)
Na brigu 7. Auf dem Berge
8. Hinter dem Walde
Brig (= Berg / mountain)
Brizinje 9. Birkenwald Briza - ikavisch (= Birke / birch)
Na krči 10. Reutäcker Krčiti (= roden, reuten / clear, ausholzen / pruning)
Pod gajem 11. Unter dem Hain Gaj (= Hain / grove, Waldchen / small forest, Gehölz woody)
Na dugom 12. Langäcker Dug (= lang / long)
Kaizarovo 13. Kaiserwald Surname: Kaiser
U kuti 14. Im Winkel
15. Grabenmulde
Kut (= Ecke / corner, Winkel / angle)
Željarske gore 16. Seldnerwald Željar (= Söllner / smallholders with little or no land)
Sridnji brig 17. Mitterriegel Sridnji (= mittle / center, belonging to the middle)
Megarina 18. Megarina
Klinski jarak 19. Klinzergraben
20. Rodung
Klinski / Klinast (= keilförmig / wedge-shaped)
Za trsji 21. Weinäcker
22. Bergäcker
Trsje (= Weingärten / vineyards)
Na kamenjicu 23. Steinäcker Kamen (= Stein / stone)
Frančićevoa 24. Frantschitsch Wald Surname: Frančić / Francsics
Na granici 25. Grenzparzellen Granica (= Grenze / limit, border)
Hirsevo 26. Hinter dem Walde Surname ?

Now we turn to those toponyms that were provided to us in a friendly way by available informants.

This section is primarily concerned with designations of local areas of our community. Also in this case we want to try, etymologically, to explain wordings that make sense only in the Croatian language:

Croatian Explanation
1. U lugu lug = Hain, Wäldchen / grove
2. Na glavica glavica = Köpfchen / head
3. Na fuzajka fuzati = rutschen / slip
4. Kod črišnjice črišnjica = Kirschchen / small cherries
5. Za seli = hinter den Dörfern / behind the villages; selo = Dorf / village
6. Kod močtil
    Na močili
močilo = Hanf-, Flachs-röste / hemp-, flax- steeping
7. Na mecvarki Weideplatz / pasture (according to Ivanović)
8. Za boričin bor = Föhre, Kiefer / pine; Boričini - House name?
9. U luki luka = Hafen / port
10. Kod stare peći beim alten Ofen / the old furnace; an dieser Stelle wurden die Ziegel für den Kirchenbau gebrannt / at this point the bricks were fired for the church
11. Med mosti = zwischen den Brücken / between the bridges; most = Brücke / bridge
12. Na gorici Gorica = Weingarten / vineyard; kleiner Berg, Wäldchen / small mountain, forest
13. U kočaku
14. U sedjina
15. U gradjici gradja = Zaun / fence
16. Kod stub(l)ja stup / stub = Säule, Pfahl / pillar, pole
17. Brodac brod = Schiff / ship
18. Na zitišći / vitišći
19. Na pužarini požar = Brand / fire; eine niedergebrannte Stelle / a burned spot
20. Šintarski jarak Šintar surname = ?
21. Pod zgonom
22. Pod škaricami škare = Schere / scissors
23. Pod brizicu briza = Birke / birch
24. Na crikvenim crikven = der Kirche gehörig / belonging to the church
25. Na močili see: Kod Močtil / 6
26. Kod dolanjega zdenca Dolanji = unterer / lower; Zdenac = Brunnen / fountain; kod = beim / when; Beim unteren Brunnen / at the lower fountain
27. Na dražici Draga = Mulde / well; dražica - diminutive
28. U žlibi žlib = Dachrinne / gutter
29. U zakutku zakutak = Ecke, Winkel / corner, angle
30. Na triftu
31. U šlohu von schlagen, abholzen / of beat, cut down; Im abgeholzten Wald / in the deforested woods
32. Na draga Draga = Mulde / well
33. Kod lutorskoga puta auf diesem Weg gingen die Lutheraner von Kukmirn nach Großpetersdorf / by this way the Lutherans of Kukmirn went to Großpetersdorf
34. Na krnjevom krnj = schartig, verstümmelt, abgehauen / jagged, mutilated, cut off
35. Na kračica kratak = kurz / short; kračina krat - koća = Kürze / soon
36. Na pusti vrtli pust = öde / desolate; vrtal = Garten / Garden; na = auf / in; Auf den öden Gärten / in the barren gardens
37. Žužin brig Žuža = Susanne; brig = Berg / mountain
38. Za brigom Hinter dem Berg / beyond the mountain

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     II: Ethnographic Notes on the Origin Question

In this section we want to investigate the ethnographic material of the Neuberger Croats, which is also provided by the peasant way of life and activities as well as through certain phrases and terms for them, and compare them with those in Yugoslavia, and especially in Croatia.

The submission of an article by V. Belaj, "Mogućnosti etnološkog pristupa proučavanju gradišćanskih Hrvata" (Possibilities of the Ethnographic Method in the Exploration of the Burgenland Croats), published in the book "Gradišćanski Hrvati" (Burgenland Croats) 1533-1983 (Zagreb 1984), was of service to us. The said ethnographer notes in his treatise that, so far, very little attention has been devoted to the ethnographic material of the Burgenland Croats, and he shows how, from the experimental maps of the ethnographic atlas of Yugoslavia and the corresponding comparative material of Burgenland, that a comparative approach can contribute to the study of the origin of the Burgenland Croats.

For our work we have used for reference the terms STEGNA (= plow tail / plow handles), ŽELIZO (= plow iron / plowshare), KRES (= fire) and Jaram (= yoke). It came to light that the term STEGNA, for plowtail, occurs in Croatia in the Kaikavischem area [the area that speaks the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian] between Medvednica (ridge north of Zagreb) and Kupa (tributary of the Sava) and only four times outside this territory [33].

For plows in Neuberg im Burgenland, the name ŽELIZO is used. This expression is also known in Croatia among Kajkavern [people who speak the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian], but also the Čakavern [people who speak the Čakavian dialect of Croatian] in Lika [34].

On the diagram (see Figure 8), we, therefore, can show that both terms almost cover all (of Croatia) but with few exceptions.

After these descriptions taken from the peasant activities, let us now turn to the word KRES (= fire). In this case, we see that the expression is to be found in those parts of Yugoslavia that are inhabited by Kajkavern. Of course, we also find it sporadically among the Čakavern in Slavonia and Bosnia [35].

Finally, even the wording for yoke (= Jaram) and its type of fastening can be compared to the drawbar with the designation and handling in Croatia.

In the whole of Burgenland and, of course, in Neuberg, the "Slavic" word yoke spread, and it is also known in the Pannonian parts of Yugoslavia, in the Vardar and Morava areas. Outside these areas, however, it is found only rarely [36].

As for the mounting of the yoke to the pole, this is done by us with a pin and an iron sling or a sheaf band. This method is known in the whole of Bosnia, in the western parts of Herzegovina, in the Dalmatian Zagora and in western Croatia, where it is applied, on the one hand, to Istria and, on the other hand, in the north to Mur [37].


Figure 8: Location of terms ŽELIZO and STEGNA

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    III: Theories about the Origin Centers

As you might expect due to our sparse analyses, we must anticipate several possible centers of origin for the Neuberger Croats.

The majority of the first immigrants likely descended from the Kajkavischem [the area that speaks the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian]. This is supported by the ethnographic material and, above all, by the fact that Franz Batthyány, who likely settled the colonists of Neuberg, had his southern manors in the Varaždin (Zamlače and Greben) area [see Figure 9].

The evaluation of the family name as to origin gives a mixed picture. Most Neuberger owner names of the 16th Century are to be found today in the area of Karlovac, Lika and in and around Split. Then follows Slavonia, primarily the area around Slavonski Brod. The third focus is Varaždin, a territory that is consistent with the ethnographic material and consistent with the possessions of Franz Batthyány. Also notable is the frequency of "Neuberger" family names in the Rijeka area.

Finally, the linguistic features that were deliberately not included in this booklet, so as not to go beyond the popular-scientific framework, point to the area on the Una.

According to G. Neweklowsky, that area has been established to be the home region of the southern Cakaver [people speaking the South Burgenland Čakavian dialect, a group of 15 villages in district Güssing that includes Neuberg] [38].


Figure 9: Location of former estates of the Batthyány family
in today's Croatia (Zamlače, Greben) and Slovenia (Turnišce)

If the latter is the case, then it is probable that the Croatian subjects of the Güssinger Grundherrschaft stayed in the Kajkavischem on their way north. As can be seen from the letters of Franz Batthyány [39], they were sent from there by his administrators (primarily by Christoph Batthyány) to their new home in West Hungary.

AFTERWORD

In the preface, we pointed out that it would be appropriate for the present paper to be supplemented by further research, so that it undergoes refinement and no torso (= unfinished work) remains.

As we know, the historical development of a place can be established only by teamwork, leaving the evaluation to the critical reader in the populace. In this sense, the author of this booklet looks forward to early cooperation with Neubergerinnen and Neubergeren [women and men from Neuberg] interested in history.

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E: Croatian Part

[This section in the original booklet contained a Croatian version of the German text; translation performed by Ivan Karall, theologian, Großwarasdorf. It is not included in this English translation.]

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ENDNOTES

[1] Urbare of Burgenland and neighboring areas of districts Wieselburg, Sopron and Vas. Volume IV, edited by Irmtraut Lindeck-Pozza. Original in the State Archives in Budapest. Dl 99.949 from 23/11/1333.

[2] R. Hajszan, Güttenbach - Historical overview and population development. In: Market Town Güttenbach (1987), p 19.

[3] Ibid. P 19.

[4] Comparisons to other Slavic toponyms on Austrian soil such as Hartberg (hrast = oak), Feistritz, Graz, Liesing, among others.

[5] Urbar the Herrschaft Güssing - 1576. Original in State archive in Budapest (Országos Levétár). Film Reel 4315, p 1322.

[6] The neighboring municipalities of Neuberg are in the gift certificate of King Sigismund from 1427 already mentioned: Vyfalu (= Güttenbach), Ewr (= Rauchwart), Kemenfalwa (= Gamischdorf), etc.

[7] V. Zimänyi, The farm status of Herrschaft Güssing in the 16th and 17 Century. Burgenland research, Issue 46. Eisenstadt 1962, p 236.

[8] Urbar the Herrschaft Güssing, Nowaghora, 1576.

[9] P = Puszta = desolate residence.

[10] Leksik prezimena socijalističke republike Hrvatske / Vocabulary of the Surnames of the Socialist Republic of Croatia. Zagreb, 1976.

[11] Ibid.

[12] P. Šimunović, Naša prezimena / Our surnames. Zagreb 1985, pp 25 and 30.

[13] J. Breu, Written communication of 15.06.1988.

[14] Šimunović, Prezimena, pp 25 and 30.

[15] Ibid., P 297.

[16] Ibid., P 133.

[17] Ibid., P 25.

[18] Ibid., P 311.

[19] Ibid., P. 42.

[20] Ibid., P. 43.

[21] Ibid., P. 43.

[22] Ibid., P. 26.

[23] P. Šimunović. Istocnojadranska toponimija / Toponymy of the Southeastern Adriatic Sea. Split, 1986, p 13.

[24] Ibid., P 209.

[25] N. Ivanović, Hrvatska toponomastika seoskih naselja u Gradišću (Croatian toponymy of local settlements in Burgenland). Manuscript, p 7.

[26] Ibid., P 9.

[27] Ibid., P 9.

[28] Ibid., P 9.

[29] Ibid., P 6.

[30] Ibid., P 3.

[31] Ibid., P 11.

[32] Designations in the Kataster. These are artificial developments of the Austrian remeasurement.

[33] V. Belaj, Mogućnosti etnološkog pristupa proučavanju povijesti gradišćanskih Hrvata. U: Gradišćanski Hrvati 1533-1983. Zagreb 1984, p 160 (includes: Belaj, Mogućnosti etnološkog pristupa).

[34] Ibid., P 160.

[35] Ibid., P 165.

[36] Ibid., P 160.

[37] Ibid., P 165.

[38] G. Neweklowsky, Croatian dialects of Burgenland and neighboring areas. Vienna 1978, p 274.

[39] Missiles, Letters of Franz Batthyány. National Archives of Hungary (Országos Levétár), Roll 4781, p 1314.

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Published by the same author:

1979 - Ignac Horvat. Extracts of the dissertation.
Self-publishing - Güttenbach.

1981 - Moj prijatelj. (My friend).
Croatian reader for bilingual primary schools in Burgenland.
Skolska knjiga - Zagreb.

1983 - Prednost se more vagati. Poems.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1983 - Pinkovski Hrvati. Croats in Güttenbach.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1984 - Mladost. (Youth).
Reading material for Croatian language students in secondary schools.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1985 - Moj prvi Nastup. (My first appearance).
Croatian dialogues and short scenic performances.
Self-publishing - Güttenbach.

1986 - Gradišćanski Hrvati na Batthyányevoj gospošćini Novi Grad.
Burgenland Croats in the area of Batthyányschen Grundherrschaft Güssing.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1987 - Güttenbach - Historical overview and population development.
In: Marktgemeinde Güttenbach. Festschrift.

=============

[The following are additional books by Robert Hajszan that were published after the Neuberg book. We add these for completeness but do not know if there exist additional book titles.]

1990 - Bauerntum und Kirche bei den südburgenländischen Kroaten
Peasantry and Church of the South Burgenland Croats
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1991 - Die Kroaten der Herrschaft Güssing / Ansiedlung - Herkunft - Sprache.
The Croats of the Güssing Herrschaft / Settlement - Origin - Language.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1992 - Die Bevölkerung der Herrschaft Rechnitz-Schlaining im 16. Jahrhundert unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des kroatischen Elements.
The People of the Rechnitz-Schlaining Herrschaft in the 16th Century with Special Reference to Croatian Element.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1993 - Die Herrschaft Güns im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert.
The Güns Herrschaft in the 15th and 16th Centuries.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1996 Pannonische Lyrik.
Pannonian Poetry.
Literas Publishing - Vienna.

1996 - Kleine Burgenländische Bühne
Small Burgenland Stage
 
END